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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1454 matches for " Jochen Bung "
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New Approaches to Legal Methodology
Jochen Bung
Ancilla Iuris , 2007,
Abstract: The topics of juridical everyday-business are relatively short lived and the commentary on this everyday-practice frequently runs behind. Following the rapid development of High-Court jurisdiction, especially at the EU-level, we notice a setting of methodological standards that cannot be comprehended by the guidelines of classical interpretation. As jurisprudence is a practical discipline and as legal practice has developed its own inner dynamics, the role of legal theory becomes a matter of increasing necessity.
Membrane Transport of Andrographolide in Artificial Membrane and Rat Small Intestine
Supawadee Daodee,Jinda Wangboonskul,Kanokwan Jarukamjorn,Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In the present study, the possible drug interactions of andrographolide with co-administering drugs such as acetaminophen, amoxycillin, aspirin, chlorpheniramine and norfloxacin to treat various infectious and inflammatory diseases that may be induced during absorption process were examined using artificial lipophilic membrane and everted rat intestine. The membrane transport of andrographolide across the artificial membrane was not affected by different pH of the medium (simulated gastric and intestinal fluids), different concentrations of andrographolide and co-administered drugs examined. In everted rat intestine, above co-administered drugs examined showed no significant effect on andrographolide membrane transport. The participation of efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein and MRP2 in andrographolide transport was then examined, since andrographolide is a diterpene compound and some diterpene compounds are known as P-glycoprotein substrates. Cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein/MRP2 inhibitor, significantly suppressed the efflux transport of andrographolide in distal region of intestine, whereas probenecid, an MRP inhibitor, showed no significant effect in both proximal and distal regions of intestine. These results suggest that P-glycoprotein, but not MRP, is participated in the intestinal absorption of andrographolide and P-glycoprotein-mediated drug interactions occur depending on the co-administered drugs and its concentrations.
Detection of Homologous Recombination Events in Bacterial Genomes
Wei-Bung Wang, Tao Jiang, Shea Gardner
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075230
Abstract: We study the detection of mutations, sequencing errors, and homologous recombination events (HREs) in a set of closely related microbial genomes. We base the model on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and break the genomes into blocks to handle the rearrangement problem. Then we apply a dynamic programming algorithm to model whether changes within each block are likely a result of mutations, sequencing errors, or HREs. Results from simulation experiments show that we can detect 31%–61% of HREs and the precision of our detection is about 48%–90% depending on the rates of mutation and missing data. The HREfinder software for predicting HREs in a set of whole genomes is available as open source (http://sourceforge.net/projects/hrefinde?r/).
Structural Insights into E. coli Porphobilinogen Deaminase during Synthesis and Exit of 1-Hydroxymethylbilane
Navneet Bung ,Meenakshi Pradhan ,Harini Srinivasan ,Gopalakrishnan Bulusu
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003484
Abstract: Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) catalyzes the formation of 1-hydroxymethylbilane (HMB), a crucial intermediate in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, through a step-wise polymerization of four molecules of porphobilinogen (PBG), using a unique dipyrromethane (DPM) cofactor. Structural and biochemical studies have suggested residues with catalytic importance, but their specific role in the mechanism and the dynamic behavior of the protein with respect to the growing pyrrole chain remains unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations of the protein through the different stages of pyrrole chain elongation suggested that the compactness of the overall protein decreases progressively with addition of each pyrrole ring. Essential dynamics showed that domains move apart while the cofactor turn region moves towards the second domain, thus creating space for the pyrrole rings added at each stage. Residues of the flexible active site loop play a significant role in its modulation. Steered molecular dynamics was performed to predict the exit mechanism of HMB from PBGD at the end of the catalytic cycle. Based on the force profile and minimal structural changes the proposed path for the exit of HMB is through the space between the domains flanking the active site loop. Residues reported as catalytically important, also play an important role in the exit of HMB. Further, upon removal of HMB, the structure of PBGD gradually relaxes to resemble its initial stage structure, indicating its readiness to resume a new catalytic cycle.
Energy Dissipation Within the Wave Run-Up at Stepped Revetments Energy Dissipation Within the Wave Run-Up at Stepped Revetments
KERPEN Nils B.,BUNG Daniel B.,VALERO Daniel,SCHLURMANN Torsten
- , 2017,
Abstract: To understand the processes and energy dissipation performance caused by turbulence during the wave run-up over a stepped revetment,hydraulic model tests with steady flow conditions are conducted and correlated with unsteady flow conditions of the wave run-up within a short time frame.Under irregular waves,the run-up reduction over a stepped revetment is dependent on the Iribarren number and decreases for decreasing Iribarren numbers.Velocity gradients are found to be similar in a steady and unsteady flow regime near the pseudo-bottom
Renormalization by Projection: On the Equivalence of the Bloch-Feshbach Formalism and Wilson's Renormalization
Jochen Mueller,Jochen Rau
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(96)00964-1
Abstract: We employ projection operator techniques in Hilbert space to derive a continuous sequence of effective Hamiltonians which describe the dynamics on successively larger length scales. We show for the case of \phi^4 theory that the masses and couplings in these effective Hamiltonians vary in accordance with 1-loop renormalization group equations. This is evidence for an intimate connection between Wilson's renormalization and the venerable Bloch-Feshbach formalism.
Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals
Jochen Wosnitza
Crystals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/cryst2020248
Abstract: In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short). In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.
Five years REACH
Jochen Flasbarth
Environmental Sciences Europe , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2190-4715-24-32
Abstract: On June, 1st, we celebrated five years experience since the European REACH Regulation [1] entered into force. The experience is mainly positive: In nearly 29,000 technical dossiers for approximately 5,900 substances, registrants submitted a huge amount of information on uses, properties, hazards, toxicological and ecotoxicological effects to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in Helsinki. These registrations include all substances with a manufacturing or import volume of more than 1,000 tons per year and registrant, all substances that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproduction which are intended to stay on the EU-market, and some more important chemicals.It was a really hard challenge for companies to meet the deadline for registration and the REACH information requirements. Although we, and also ECHA [2] are not completely satisfied with the quality of many dossiers and the way the information requirements were interpreted, we’d like to congratulate the world-wide chemical industry for managing this challenge in time.The task for authorities is to prioritise substances for regulatory activities. For ECHA this is the dossier evaluation, for Member States authorities the substance evaluation and for all authorities elaborating proposals to identify substances of very high concern (SVHC), and candidates for authorisation and restrictions. Some of these tasks are already in the beginning (e.g. substance evaluation), others are ongoing, (e.g. the identification of SVHC). By September, 1st, 84 SVHC are included in the candidate list, and 14 substances are included in Annex XIV and therefore will be subject for authorisation in future. To elaborate the proposals and to agree the measures in the Member State Committee was not an easy task – and therefore we congratulate also the Member States authorities, and especially ECHA.Reflecting five years experiences, we see options for some improvements. Among other suggestions, the most important is to strengthen th
Statistical filtering for NMR based structure generation
Jochen Junker
Journal of Cheminformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2946-3-31
Abstract: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is the most common tool used for the structure elucidation of new compounds. The used 2D NMR experiments like COSY, HSQC, and 13C-HMBC deliver correlation information between atoms that can be translated into connectivity information. Out of these, correlation information from COSY and HSQC experiments can be transcribed directly into connectivity between atoms. But the 13C-HMBC correlations need more attention because of their ambiguity and complexity. Hence the difficulty of the structure elucidation problem depends more on the type of the investigated molecule than on its size. Saturated compounds can usually be assigned unambiguously using mainly COSY and some 13C-HMBC data, whereas condensed heterocycles are problematic due to their lack of protons that could show interatomic connectivities. This ambiguity has driven the development of different software packages to aid in the interpretation of the 13C-HMBC correlation data [1-19] as much as the development of additional correlation experiments [20,21].When the observed connectivity information is used as input for the structure generation program COCON[3,22-24] it will create all compatible constitutional assignments. In the case of unsaturated molecules COCON will usually generate a very large number of possible solutions. Since the solutions will then have to be checked manually for their chemical feasibility and sense, Different efforts have been made to reduce the number solutions. Among others, ranking of the constitutional assignments by chemical shift deviation and/or substructural elements have been tested [25,26] integrated to COCON runs. Unfortunately, the described software could not be made available for the online version of COCON (WEBCOCON at http://cocon.nmr.de webcite), since it uses data protected by Intellectual Property. A different way of handling the result set had to be chosen, and the statistical filter was implemented.The idea behind the filter is, to compare
Theoretical NMR correlations based Structure Discussion
Jochen Junker
Journal of Cheminformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2946-3-27
Abstract: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance allied with Elemental analysis or high resolution Mass Spectroscopy are the most common tools used for the structure elucidation of new compounds. The used 2D NMR experiments like COSY, HSQC, and 13C-HMBC deliver correlation information between atoms that can be translated into connectivity information. Out of these, correlation information from COSY and HSQC experiments can be transcribed directly into connectivity between atoms. But the 13C-HMBC correlations need more attention because of their ambiguity and complexity. Hence the difficulty of the structure elucidation problem depends more on the type of the investigated molecule than on its size [1]. Saturated compounds can usually be assigned unambiguously using mainly COSY and some 13C-HMBC data, whereas condensed heterocycles are problematic due to their lack of protons that could show interatomic connectivities. This ambiguity has driven the development of different software packages to aid in the interpretation of the 13C-HMBC correlation data [2-20] as much as the development of additional correlation experiments [21,22].Most of these approaches have in common that they work only based on experimental NMR correlation data. COCON [1,4,23,24] has recently been extended with the capability to create a theoretical NMR correlation data set, based on a molecule's suggested constitution. The theoretical data set is used as input data for the structure elucidation software COCON. The resulting set of constitutional assignments indicates how unambiguous NMR would have been able to describe the originally suggested molecule. The freely accessible online version of COCON (WEBCOCON at http://cocon.nmr.de webcite) offers this analysis as "Alternative Constitutions".The data derived from the NMR correlation spectra is the result of magnetization transfer via scalar coupling between the atoms in the molecule of interest. Since the scalar coupling is based on the interatomic bonds, the correlatio
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