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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 509649 matches for " Joanna E. M. Sale "
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Bone Mineral Density Reporting Underestimates Fracture Risk in Ontario  [PDF]
Joanna E. M. Sale, Earl Bogoch, Lynn Meadows, Monique Gignac, Lucy Frankel, Taucha Inrig, Dorcas Beaton, Ravi Jain
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.75067
Abstract: Objective: Analysis of clinical documents such as bone mineral density (BMD) reports is an important component of program evaluation because it can provide insights into the accuracy of assessment of fracture risk communicated to patients and practitioners. Our objective was to compare fracture risk calculations from BMD test reports to those based on the 2010 Canadian guidelines. Methods: We retrieved BMD reports from fragility fracture patients screened through a community hospital fracture clinic participating in Ontario’s Fracture Clinic Screening Program. Fracture risk was determined according to the 2010 Canadian guidelines using age, sex, and T-score at the femoral neck, in addition to three clinical factors. Three researchers classified patients’ fracture risk until consensus was achieved. Results: We retrieved reports for 17 patients from nine different BMD clinics in the Greater Toronto Area. Each patient had a different primary care physician and all BMD tests were conducted after the 2010 Canadian guidelines were published. The fracture risk of 10 patients was misclassified with 9 of the 10 reports underestimating fracture risk. Nine reports acknowledged that the prevalence of a fragility fracture raised the risk category by one level but only four of these reports acknowledged that the patient had, or may have sustained, a fragility fracture. When we raised fracture risk by one level according to these reports, eight patients were still misclassified. Fracture risk in the majority of these patients remained underestimated. Inconsistent classification was found in the majority of cases where reports came from the same clinic. Four reports described risk levels for two different types of risk. Conclusions: More than half of patients received BMD reports which underestimated fracture risk. Bone health management recommendations based on falsely low fracture risk are likely to be sub-optimal.
What Do We Know about Individuals Who Are Assessed as Being at Moderate Risk for Future Fracture in Canada?  [PDF]
Joanna E. M. Sale, Ravi Jain, Kosalan Akilan, Kevin Senior, Dorcas Beaton, Earl Bogoch, Gilles Boire, Marie-Claude Beaulieu, David Lightfoot, Larry Funnell
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.75061
Abstract: Objective: We examined what was known about individuals in Canada who were assessed as being at moderate risk for future fracture. Methods: A scoping review was conducted. Eligible articles were Canadian studies published from 2010 onwards reporting on primary data that included patients at moderate risk for future fracture. We limited the search to Canada as fracture risk categorization is unique to each country. Studies were identified by searching relevant databases. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts to determine each study’s eligibility. General information about each study, demographic information about the moderate risk groups (including tool used to determine moderate risk (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC)), and outcomes (number of patients: recommended treatment, prescribed treatment, initiating treatment, persisting with treatment after six months, who refractured, who died) were documented. Results: We identified 1193 papers which were further screened for eligibility. Of the 1193 identified, 7 were eligible for the review but only 4 articles contained demographic or outcome data on moderate risk patients. In one study, 1.8% of moderate risk patients died over a mean 5.3 years of observation and in three studies, the risk of fracture was 5.9% over a median of 3 years of follow-up, 8.3% over a mean of 5.4 years, and 14.7% over 10 years of follow-up. Conclusion: There is a wide knowledge gap in the literature concerning individuals who are assessed as moderate risk for future fracture in Canada.
Circulating Subbeam Systems and the Physics of Pulsar Emission
Joanna M. Rankin,Geoffrey A. E. Wright
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-003-0020-x
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest how detailed single-pulse observations of ``slow'' radio pulsars may be utilized to construct an empirical model for their emission. It links the observational synthesis developed in a series of papers by Rankin starting in the 1980s to the more recent empirical feedback model of Wright (2003a) by regarding the entire pulsar magnetosphere as a non-steady, non-linear interactive system with a natural built-in delay. It is argued that the enhanced role of the outer gap in such a system indicates an evolutionary link to younger pulsars, in which this region is thought to be highly active, and that pulsar magnetospheres should no longer be seen as being ``driven'' by events on the neutron star's polar cap, but as having more in common with planetary magnetospheres and auroral phenomena.
Three-dimensional extinction mapping and selection effects
S. E. Sale
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1459
Abstract: Selection effects can bedevil the inference of the properties of a population of astronomical catalogues, unavoidably biasing the observed catalogue. This is particularly true when mapping interstellar extinction in three dimensions: more extinguished stars are fainter and so generally less likely to appear in any magnitude limited catalogue of observations. This paper demonstrates how to account for this selection effect when mapping extinction, so that accurate and unbiased estimates of the true extinction are obtained. We advocate couching the description of the problem explicitly as a Poisson point process, which allows the likelihoods employed to be easily and correctly normalised in such a way that accounts for the selection functions applied to construct the catalogue of observations.
3D Extinction Mapping Using Hierarchical Bayesian Models
S. E. Sale
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21662.x
Abstract: The Galaxy and the stars in it form a hierarchical system, such that the properties of individual stars are influenced by those of the Galaxy. Here, an approach is described which uses hierarchical Bayesian models to simultaneously and empirically determine the mean distance-extinction relationship for a sightline and the properties of stars which populate it. By exploiting the hierarchical nature of the problem, the method described is able to achieve significantly improved precision and accuracy with respect to previous 3D extinction mapping techniques. This method is not tied to any individual survey and could be applied to any observations, or combination of observations available. Furthermore, it is extendible and, in addition, could be employed to study Galactic structure as well as factors such as the initial mass function and star formation history in the Galaxy.
Taxonomic Significance of Foliar Epidermal Characters in Azanza garckaena (F. Hoffm.) Exell & Hillc in Tula, Kaltungo Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria  [PDF]
H. M. Abba, H. Daniel, S. Sale, D. A. Zhigila
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.98121
Abstract: Leaf epidermal microscopy of Azanza garckeana was studied in search of stable taxonomic characters and delimitation of the plant. Fresh leaves were obtained from 3 accessions in Tula: Tula Wange, Tula Baule and Tula Yiri/Bwaile respectively. Leaf epidermal peels of both surfaces of the plant were made using free hand sectioning and maceration methods. Temporary slides were prepared for observations under light microscope to examine their stomatal features, epidermal cell shapes, and anticlinal cell-wall patterns. The result revealed epiamphistomatic leaves, Stomatal complex type (SCT) was exclusively anomocytic, epidermal cell shapes were all irregular in shape, with curved anticlinal cell wall
Three-dimensional extinction mapping using Gaussian random fields
S. E. Sale,J. Magorrian
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1728
Abstract: We present a scheme for using stellar catalogues to map the three-dimensional distributions of extinction and dust within our Galaxy. Extinction is modelled as a Gaussian random field, whose covariance function is set by a simple physical model of the ISM that assumes a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. As extinction is modelled as a random field, the spatial resolution of the resulting maps is set naturally by the data available; there is no need to impose any spatial binning. We verify the validity of our scheme by testing it on simulated extinction fields and show that its precision is significantly improved over previous dust-mapping efforts. The approach we describe here can make use of any photometric, spectroscopic or astrometric data; it is not limited to any particular survey. Consequently, it can be applied to a wide range of data from both existing and future surveys.
Marginal likelihoods of distances and extinctions to stars: computation and compact representation
S. E. Sale,J. Magorrian
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv068
Abstract: We present a method for obtaining the likelihood function of distance and extinction to a star given its photometry. The other properties of the star (its mass, age, metallicity and so on) are marginalised assuming a simple Galaxy model. We demonstrate that the resulting marginalised likelihood function can be described faithfully and compactly using a Gaussian mixture model. For dust mapping applications we strongly advocate using monochromatic over bandpass extinctions, and provide tables for converting from the former to the latter for different stellar types.
Drifting, moding, and nulling: another look at pulsar B1918+19
Joanna M. Rankin,Geoffrey A. E. Wright,Andrew M. Brown
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt739
Abstract: Arecibo observations of the conal triple pulsar B1918+19 at 0.327- and 1.4-GHz are used to analyse its subpulse behaviour in detail. We confirm the presence of three distinct drift modes (A,B,C) plus a disordered mode (N) and show that they follow one another in specific cycles. Interpreting the pulsar's profile as resulting from a sightline traverse which cuts across an outer cone and tangentially grazes an inner cone, we demonstrate that the phase modulation of the inner cone is locked to the amplitude modulation of the outer cone in all the drift modes. The 9% nulls are found to be largely confined to the dominant B and N modes, and, in the N mode, create alternating bunches of nulls and emission in a quasi-periodic manner with an averaged fluctuation rate of about 12 rotation periods ($P_1$). We explore the assumption that the apparent drift is the first alias of a faster drift of subbeams equally spaced around the cones. This is shown to imply that all modes A, B and C have a common circulation time of 12 $P_1$ and differ only in the number of subbeams. This timescale is on the same order as predicted by the classic {\bf E}$\times${\bf B} drift and also coincides with the N-mode modulation. We therefore arrive at a picture where the circulation speed remains roughly invariant while the subbeams progressively diminish in number from modes A to B to C, and are then re-established during the N mode. We suggest that aliasing combined with subbeam loss may be responsible for apparently dramatic changes in drift rates in other pulsars.
The cordel as information source: the vividness of leaflets of twine in Rio Grande do Norte
Sale Mário Gaudêncio
Biblionline , 2010,
Abstract: Presents a general characterization of popular literature (until 2005) aimed at analyzing thelevel of importance that has been given to pulp fiction as informational source in Rio Grandedo Norte. Focuses its career from Europe to Brazil, taking into account their strength innortheastern Brazil. Describes the line from a scene that comes from decades of cord gold(1920-1950), and its way of sort of influence in the fine arts and the string in the currentpotiguar scenario. Shows what is an information source and from that perspective, the line asa source of information and the librarian’s role in this process. Discusses the methodologicalprocedures worked through a discussion of researach, its universe, its actors, instruments(bibliographical research, electronics and conducting focused interview) and its procedures.Works to analyze the data from the relation string and twine and twine and library. With thedata, we could make a qualitative analysis and identify the current situation of the string in thestate of Rio Grande do Norte. It concludes by pointing an opinion, prospects and makesrecommendations for the string literature in RN.
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