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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2700 matches for " Joanna Burger "
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Participation and Activity Rates: Monitoring Exposure Potential for Native Americans and Others in the United States  [PDF]
Joanna Burger
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28116
Abstract: Managers and regulators are concerned about potential human health effects from exposure on lands contaminated by chemicals and radionuclides. Determining target cleanup levels is partly dependent upon future land use, and potential exposure from human use. This paper provides data from surveys of activity patterns of people attending festivals in four states, located in the vicinity of Department of Energy facilities. There were significant differences in both participation rates, and activity rates as a function of both location and ethnicity that can be used by managers to track exposure, land use, and preferred activities on natural lands. In general, 1) a higher percent of Native Americans engaged in consumptive activities than others, 2) a higher percent of Caucasians engaged in some non-consumptive activities than Native Americans, 3) a higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in activities on sacred grounds, 4) activity rates were generally higher for Native Americans for consumptive activities and religious/cultural than for Caucasians, 5) fishing rates were higher than other consumptive activities, and camping/hiking were higher than other non-con- sumptive activities, and 6) hunting rates were higher in subjects from Idaho than elsewhere. Baseline human use is critical for monitoring potential exposure, and provides the basis for monitoring, risk assessment and future land use, and these data can be used by managers for assessment and management. Tracking changes over time will reflect changing recreational, subsistence, and cultural/religious trends that relate to land use, public perceptions, and exposure.
A Conceptual Framework Evaluating Ecological Footprints and Monitoring Renewable Energy: Wind, Solar, Hydro, and Geothermal  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.44040
Abstract: With worldwide increases in energy consumption, and the need to increase reliance on renewable energy, we must examine ecological footprints of each energy source, as well as its carbon emissions. Renewable energy sources (wind, solar, hydro, geothermal) are given as the best examples of “green” energy sources with low carbon emissions. We provide a conceptual model for examining the ecological footprint of energy sources, and suggest that each resource needs continued monitoring to protect the environment, and ultimately human health. The effects and consequences of ecological footprint need to be considered in terms of four-compartments: underground (here defined as geoshed), surface, airshed, and atmosphere. We propose a set of measurement endpoints (metrics may vary), in addition to CO2 footprint, that are essential to evaluate the ecological and human health consequences of different energy types. These include traditional media monitoring (air, water, soil), as well as ecological footprints. Monitoring human perceptions of energy sources is also important for energy policy, which evolves with changes in population density, technologies, and economic consequences. While some assessment endpoints are specific to some energy sectors, others can provide crosscutting information allowing the public, communities and governments to make decisions about energy policy and sustainability.
Knowledge and Perceptions of Energy Alternatives, Carbon and Spatial Footprints, and Future Energy Preferences within a University Community in Northeastern US  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54033

Our overall research aim was to examine whether people distinguished between the spatial footprint and carbon footprint of different energy sources, and whether their overall “worry” about energy types was related to future developed of these types. We surveyed 451 people within a university community regarding knowledge about different energy sources with regard to renewability and spatial and carbon footprints and attitudes about which energy type(s) should be developed further. Findings were: 1) Gas, oil and coal were rated as the least renewable, and wind, solar and hydro as the most renewable; 2) Oil and coal were rated as having the largest carbon footprint, while wind, solar and tidal were rated the lowest; 3) There were smaller differences in ratings for spatial footprints, probably reflecting unfamiliarity with the concept, although oil and gas were rated the highest; 4) Energy sources viewed as renewable were favored for future development compared with non-renewable energy sources, and coal and oil were rated the lowest; 5) Worry-free sources such as solar were favored; and 6) There were some age-related differences, but they were small, and there were no gender-related differences. Overall, subjects knew more about carbon footprints than spatial footprints, generally correctly identified renewable and non-renewable sources, and wanted future energy development for energy sources which were less worried about (e.g. solar, wind). These perceptions require in-depth examination in a large sample from different areas of the country.

Shorebirds, Stakeholders, and Competing Claims to the Beach and Intertidal Habitat in Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Lawrence Niles
Natural Science (NS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2017.96019
Birds have specific habitat needs as a function of their life cycle and reproductive stage. Migrant shorebirds that may fly from the Arctic to the southern tip of South America have foraging and habitat requirements at sites where they stop to refuel before continuing their migration north or south. Throughout the world, shorebirds mainly forage on mudflats at low tide. Red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) are threatened in the United States and elsewhere, and it is critical to determine factors that might contribute to their decline. This paper uses Delaware Bay as a case study to examine shorebird (and red knot) use of the intertidal habitat, and competing claims to habitats they require during their northward migration, as well as some of the key stakeholders that play a role in protecting red knots. Shorebirds are drawn to Delaware Bay to feed on the eggs of Horseshoe Crabs (Limulus polyphemus) that are concentrated at the high tide. But they also feed on the intertidal mudflat. We examined intertidal habitat use on 17 beaches in an extensive study in 2015, and 5 key beaches in 2016. Most of the beaches were longitudinal, but four were more complex, and were used extensively for resting as well as foraging; numbers there were higher than on the longitudinal beaches. On foraging beaches, some shorebirds were present on over 85% of the intertidal censuses, and red knots were present on over 48% of the intertidal censuses. Average numbers of red knots on the longitudinal beaches varied from 0 to 354 ± 116 when any shorebirds were present, but averaged up to 1184 ± 634 when knots were present in 2015. Some beaches in 2015 had no knots (a beach with long-term aquaculture). Tide, intertidal location, and beach (name) determined the number of knots (and all shorebirds). Numbers decreased with distance from the mean high tide line. The average number of knots present in the intertidal mudflats two hours before or after low tide when knots were present (e.g. no censuses with zeros) was 2040 (=maximum flock size, in 2015). Major threats to red knots are from recreationists, overfishing of horseshoe crabs (reduction in egg prey base), and use of the intertidal by aquaculture. We discuss the role of stakeholders in conservation and protection of red knots.
Migratory Behavior of Franklin’s Gulls (Larus pipixcan) in Peru  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Robert Ridgely
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2010.23021
Abstract: Information on the migratory pathways for birds is essential to the future citing of wind power facilities, particularly in off-shore waters. Yet, relatively little is known about the coastal or offshore migratory behavior of most birds, including Franklin’s gulls (Larus pipixcan), a long-distant migrant. We report observations along the coast of Peru made in November 2008 to determine where birds concentrated. Wind facilities can not avoid regions of high avian activity without knowing where that activity occurs. Migrant flocks of 250 to 50,000 were observed on coastal farmfields, dumps and estuaries, on beaches and mudflats, and up to 45 km offshore. Bathing and foraging flocks ranged in size from 20 to 500 birds, and most flocks were monospecific, with occasional grey-headed (Larus cirrocephalus) and band-tailed (L. belcheri) on the periphery. While previous notes report Franklin’s gulls foraging coastally, we found flocks feeding up to 45 km offshore by diving for prey or feeding on the water. The relative percentage of birds of the year varied in migrant flocks from zero to 14%, with lower numbers of young foraging aerially on insects (only 1%). The percentage of young feeding over the ocean decreased with increasing distance from shore; no young of the year were recorded at 36-44 km offshore. While there were large flocks of Franklin’s gulls resting on the water inshore, the number of gulls foraging offshore did not decline up to 45 km offshore. The presence of foraging flocks of Franklin’s gulls out to 45 km offshore, and occupying space from 0 to 20 m above the water, suggests that they would be vulnerable to offshore anthropogenic activities, such as offshore drilling and wind facilities.
Perceptions of Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Possible Consequences Relate Mainly to Self-Valuation of Science Knowledge  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Taryn Pittfield, Christian Jeitner
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2016.85024
Abstract: This study examines perceptions of climate change and sea level rise in New Jersey residents in 2012 and 2014. Different surveys have shown declines in interest and concern about climate change and sea level rise. Climate change and increasing temperatures have an anthropogenic cause, which relates to energy use, making it important to examine whether people believe that it is occurring. In late 2012 New Jersey experienced Super storm Sandy, one of the worst hurricanes in its history, followed by public discussion and media coverage of stronger more frequent storms due to climate change. Using structured interviews, we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in perceptions of 1260 interviewees as a function of year of the survey, age, gender, years of education, and self-evaluation of science knowledge (on a scale of 1 to 5). In 2012 460 of 639 (72%) rated “global warming occurring” as “certain” (#4) or “very certain” (#5) compared with 453 of 621 (73%) in 2014. For “due to human activities” the numbers of “certain” or “very certain” were 71% in 2012, and 67% in 2014 and for sea level rise the numbers were 64% and 70%. There were some inconsistent between-year differences with higher ratings in 2012 for 3 outcomes and higher ratings in 2014 for 5 outcomes. However, for 25 questions relative to climate change, sea level rise, and the personal and ecological effects of sea level rise, self-evaluation of science knowledge, independent of years of education, was the factor that entered 23 of the models, accounting for the most variability in ratings. People who believed they had a “high knowledge” (#4) or “very high knowledge” (#5) of science rated all issues as more important than did those people who rated their own scientific knowledge as average or below average.
Habitat protection for sensitive species: Balancing species requirements and human constraints using bioindicators as examples  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Charles W. Powers, Lawrence Niles, Robert Zappalorti, Jeremy Feinberg, James Clarke
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.55A007
Abstract: Vertebrates have particular habitat needs as a function of life cycle and reproductive stage. This paper uses four species as examples to illustrate a paradigm of environmental assessment that includes physical, biological, toxicological and human dimensions. Species used include Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), northern pine snake (Pituophis m. melanoleucus), and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper). The life cycles of these species include reliance on habitats that are aquatic, terrestrial, aerial, or combinations of these. Two species (frog, snake) are sedentary and two (salmon, sandpiper) are long-distance migrants. While some measurement endpoints are similar for all species (reproductive success, longevity, contaminant loads), others vary depending upon life cycle and habitat. Salmon have a restricted breeding habitat requiring coarse sand, moderate current, and high oxygen levels for adequate egg incubation. Leopard frogs require still water of appropriate temperature for development of eggs. Pine snakes require sand compaction sufficient to sustain a nest burrow without collapsing, and full sun penetration to the sand to allow their eggs in underground nests to incubate and hatch. Red knots migrate to high Arctic tundra, but incubate their own eggs, so temperature is less of a constraint, but feedinging habitat is. These habitat differences suggest the measurement endpoints that are essential to assess habitat suitability and to manage habitats to achieve stable and sustainable populations. Habitat use and population stability have implications for human activities for some, but not all species. Salmon are important economically, recreationally, and as part of Native American culture and diet. Red knots are of interest to people mainly because of their long, intercontinental migrations and declining populations. Other measurement endpoints for these four species illustrate the differences and similarities in metrics necessary to assess habitat needs. The implications of these differences are discussed.
Activity Patterns And Perceptions Of Goods, Services, And Eco-Cultural Attributes By Ethnicity And Gender For Native Americans And Caucasians
Joanna Burger,Michael Gochfeld,Christian Jeitner,Taryn Pittfield
International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism , 2012,
Abstract: Managing ecosystems requires understanding how people use and value them. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in resource use and perceptions of environmental quality in Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in East-central Idaho. More men than women engaged in consumptive activities, but there were no differences for non-consumptive or religious/spiritual. More Caucasian males engaged in hunting, and more females engaged in collecting herb and, berries, and bird-watching. More Native American males engaged in hunting and fishing, and more females engaged in picnics and walking/running. Women had higher rates of hike, walk and bike than did men, and there were no ethnic differences. The data indicate that both the percent participation and the frequency of participation varied both ethnically and by gender.
Determining Environmental Impacts for Sensitive Species: Using Iconic Species as Bioindicators for Management and Policy  [PDF]
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Charles W. Powers, James H. Clarke, Kevin Brown, David Kosson, Lawrence Niles, Amanda Dey, Christian Jeitner, Taryn Pittfield
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A2011

Environmental assessment of impacts, management, and policy are important aspects of protection of human health and the environment. Assessing the impacts of human activities requires selection of bioindicator species that can be used to assess, manage, and develop public policies that ensure ecosystem integrity, and therefore sustainability of social, cultural, and economic systems. With the use of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Pacific Cod (Gadusmacrocephalus), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa), we explore assessment and measurement endpoints, and their relationship to management and development of public policy. This combination of fish and birds provides a diversity of life histories, ecosystem roles, human values, and resource use to explore their use as bioindicators and endpoints. It also allows examination of 1) conservation and protection of species and biodiversity, 2) protection of ecosystems, 3) provision of goods and services, and 4) societal well-being.

Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska
Sara Hardell,Hanna Tilander,Gretchen Welfinger-Smith,Joanna Burger,David O. Carpenter
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012396
Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.
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