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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327348 matches for " Joan S. Chmiel "
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Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008
Kate Buchacz,Rose Baker,Douglas J. Ward,Frank J. Palella,Joan S. Chmiel,Benjamin Young,Bienvenido G. Yangco,Richard M. Novak,John T. Brooks
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/230290
Abstract: Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT) in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI) was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE). Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, ). Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, ) as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, ). Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%), and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%), but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs. 1. Introduction Highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly improved survival and reduced the rates of AIDS-related complications among HIV-infected persons [1–3]. Emergence of HIV variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral (ARV) medications can significantly limit the effectiveness and durability of treatment [3–8]. Use of ARV resistance testing to optimize cART selection has been associated with better virologic and clinical outcomes [9–11] and improved survival [12], and resistance testing is now generally recommended in the clinical management of HIV infection [13–15]. We have previously shown that use of genotypic and phenotypic testing increased in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) during 1999–2006 and that the likelihood of testing varied by HIV disease severity and demographic characteristics [16]. Recent European and Canadian studies have suggested that both the prevalence [17, 18] and incidence [19, 20] of ARV resistance among HIV-infected persons have declined, due predominately to a decrease in the proportion of patients with pre-cART mono- or dual-ARV experience, and the increasing use and effectiveness of more tolerable and potent cART regimens that appear less likely to result in resistance mutations [18–22].
Directional character of soil surface reflectance in the visible and near-infrared range
J. Cierniewski,M. Verbrugghe,S. Bia?…??ousz,J. Chmiel
International Agrophysics , 1995,
Abstract: The paper shows the importance of directional effects on soil reflectance in the visible and near -infrared range. It includes physical principles of surface interactions with radiation in this spectral range, and examples of soil reflectance measurements performed during Polish-French cooperation.
Oxidant lung injury in cystic fibrosis
Chmiel James
Respiratory Research , 2001,
Downlink Scheduling and Rate Capping for LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation  [PDF]
Mieszko Chmiel, Jin Shi, David X. Zhou
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B2001
Abstract: Long Term Evolution (LTE) Carrier Aggregation (CA) was introduced by the Release-10 3GPP specifications. CA allows aggregation of up to 5 cells for a terminal; both downlink (DL) CA and uplink (UL) CA are supported by the 3GPP specifications. However, the first commercial deployments focus on the aggregation of two cells in the downlink. The benefits of LTE CA are increased terminal peak data rates, aggregation of fragmented spectrum and fast load balancing. In this paper, we analyze different strategies of DL scheduling for LTE CA including centralized, independent and distributed schedulers, we provide the corresponding simulation results considering UE data rate limitations and different traffic models. Also, we compare the performance of a single LTE carrier with LTE CA using the same total bandwidth.
Scientific discourse in the works of Edgar Allan Poe
Ferrús Vicente, Joan
452o F : Revista de Teoría de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada , 2009,
Abstract: The birth of science fiction takes place along the 19th century, following the progressive settlement of scientific discourse. This allows the development of the novum, a concept established by Suvin. According to this concept, those elements alien to the expectations of reality shared by writer and reader are validated by the scientific discourse, and therefore become plausible. Even though Edgar Allan Poe uses certain motives that will afterwards configure science fiction, his distrust for scientific discourse does not allow us to consider him a pioneer in the genre. In his texts he proposes a synthesis between Reason and Imagination inspired by Pascal, and recurrently satirizes the gullibility of those that accept as true any event that poorly resembles scientism.
Universales ling isticos en adquisicion de segundas lenguas
Joan Llinàs Suau
Studii si Cercetari Filologice : Seria Limbi Romanice , 2007,
Abstract: Las líneas que siguen proponen un recorrido que parte del sistema fonológico de una lengua, de dos o de más para llegar al establecimiento de principios universales que gobiernan no solamente la lengua materna sino también la producción de segmentos en segundas lenguas.
Franquistes catalans i llengua catalana durant el primer franquisme
Joan Maria Thomàs
Llengua & Literatura , 2001, DOI: 10.2436/l&l.vi.1442
L'avaluació de la formació a l'empresa
Joan Mateo Andrés
Temps d'Educació , 1991,
Controvèrsies metodològiques de la investigació
Joan Mateo Andrés
Temps d'Educació , 2001,
Claus de la transició a l’Espai Europeu d’Educació Key factors in the transition to the European Higher Education Area Claves de la transición al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior
Joan Mateo Andrés
Temps d'Educació , 2010,
Abstract: La Facultat de Pedagogia de la Universitat de Barcelona va haver d’afrontar el repte que suposava la transició cap a les noves titulacions, en unes condicions inicials especialment difícils: falta de confian a en la supervivència d’algunes de les seves titulacions en l’àmbit de l’Estat, escepticisme sobre les bondats del nou espai que s’obria, etc. En aquesta aportació fem un repàs de les claus que van justificar l’esfor fet per la nostra comunitat universitària i ho fem mitjan ant un recorregut pels seus components més substantius; així, anem des d’una revisió dels continguts bàsics dels diferents comunicats i declaracions fins a una anàlisi compromesa sobre les amenaces de futur que poden arribar a contaminar o desvirtuar la implantació reeixida de les titulacions futures. ____________________________________________ La faculté de Pédagogie de l’Université de Barcelone a d relever le défi qu’impliquait la transition vers les nouveaux titres et dipl mes dans des conditions initiales tout particulièrement difficiles : manque de confiance quant à la survie de certains titres ou dipl mes au niveau de l’état, scepticisme quant à la valeur de nouvel espace qui s’ouvrait, etc. Dans cet article, nous faisons une révision des clés qui ont justifié l’effort fait par notre communauté éducative, et nous le faisons grace à un parcours de ses composantes les plus substantielles ; ainsi, nous allons d’une révision des contenus de base des différents communiqués et déclarations jusqu’à une analyse engagée quant aux menaces d’avenir qui peuvent arriver à contaminer ou à dénaturer l’implantation réussie des titres et dipl mes futurs. The University of Barcelona’s Faculty of Pedagogy had to face the challenge of the transition to the new EHEA degrees under particularly difficult initial conditions: there was a lack of confidence about whether some University of Barcelona degree courses would continue to run in the Spanish State and scepticism about the benefits of the new EHEA that was being formed, among other issues. In this paper, we examine the main factors that justified the efforts of the educational community, by analysing the most substantive aspects. We review the basic contents of the various ommuniqués and declarations and carry out a thorough analysis of future threats that could distort or disrupt the successful introduction of EHEA degrees. La Facultad de Pedagogía de la Universidad de Barcelona tuvo que afrontar el reto que suponía la transición hacia las nuevas titulaciones en unas condiciones iniciales especialmente difíciles: falta de confianza en la
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