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Search Results: 1 - 8 of 8 matches for " Jithra Adikari "
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VLSI Architecture for 8-Point AI-based Arai DCT having Low Area-Time Complexity and Power at Improved Accuracy
Amila Edirisuriya,Arjuna Madanayake,Vassil S. Dimitrov,Renato J. Cintra,Jithra Adikari
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/jlpea2020127
Abstract: A low complexity digital VLSI architecture for the computation of an algebraic integer (AI) based 8-point Arai DCT algorithm is proposed. AI encoding schemes for exact representation of the Arai DCT transform based on a particularly sparse 2-D AI representation is reviewed, leading to the proposed novel architecture based on a new final reconstruction step (FRS) having lower complexity and higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art. This FRS is based on an optimization derived from expansion factors that leads to small integer constant-coefficient multiplications, which are realized with common sub-expression elimination (CSE) and Booth encoding. The reference circuit [1] as well as the proposed architectures for two expansion factors α? = 4.5958 and α′ = 167.2309 are implemented. The proposed circuits show 150% and 300% improvements in the number of DCT coefficients having error ≤ 0:1% compared to [1]. The three designs were realized using both 40 nm CMOS Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGAs and synthesized using 65 nm CMOS general purpose standard cells from TSMC. Post synthesis timing analysis of 65 nm CMOS realizations at 900 mV for all three designs of the 8-point DCT core for 8-bit inputs show potential real-time operation at 2.083 GHz clock frequency leading to a combined throughput of 2.083 billion 8-point Arai DCTs per second. The expansion-factor designs show a 43% reduction in area (A) and 29% reduction in dynamic power (PD) for FPGA realizations. An 11% reduction in area is observed for the ASIC design for α? = 4.5958 for an 8% reduction in total power ( PT ). Our second ASIC design having α′ = 167.2309 shows marginal improvements in area and power compared to our reference design but at significantly better accuracy.
Differential partitioning of Gαi1 with the cellular microtubules: a possible mechanism of development of Taxol resistance in human ovarian carcinoma cells
Hemant K Parekh, Mahesha Adikari, Bharathi Vennapusa
Journal of Molecular Signaling , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1750-2187-1-3
Abstract: Utilizing the mRNA differential display technique, we observed increased expression of an alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, Gαi1, in the taxol-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell lines compared to the parental 2008 cells. Several isoforms of the α-subunit of the G protein have been identified and the Gαi (inhibitory) are so named because they inhibit the activity of adenylate cyclase leading to inactivation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. In addition, Gαi1 is also known to bind to microtubules and activates their GTPase activity and thus induces depolymerization of the microtubules. In the present study we demonstrate that the intracellular level of cAMP and the PKA activity were higher in the taxol-resistant 2008/13/4 and the 2008/17/4 cells despite the increased expression of Gαi1 in these cells. Moreover, Gαi1 was found to be localized not on the cell membrane, but in intracellular compartments in both the taxol-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells. Interestingly, increased association of the Gαi1 protein and the microtubules in the taxol-resistant cells compared to the parental 2008 cells was observed, both prior to and after treatment of these cells with taxol.Based on the opposing effects of taxol and the Gαi1 protein on the microtubule dynamic instability (taxol suppresses microtubule dynamic instability whilst the Gαi1 protein inhibits the suppression) our results indicate the operation of a novel pathway that would enable the cells to escape the cytotoxic effects of taxol.The antimitotic anticancer drug paclitaxel (taxol) has a unique mechanism of action: unlike other mitotic spindle poisons (viz. vinca alkaloids), taxol binds to the N-terminal end of β-tubulin and promotes microtubule assembly [1-3]. The effect of taxol on the microtubule dynamics has been studied extensively in cell free systems as well in living cells [4-6]. Observations thus made indicate taxol-induced suppression of micr
Knowledge of prescribed medication information among patients with limited English proficiency in Sri Lanka
Thisara Perera, Priyanga Ranasinghe, Udeshika Perera, Sherin Perera, Madura Adikari, Saroj Jayasinghe, Godwin R Constantine
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-658
Abstract: A descriptive-cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 adult patients attending clinics at the Cardiology Unit of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Knowledge assessment focused on four different sections; drug name, dose, frequency and indication. The total score of 60 was calculated by giving each component the following weighted scores; drug name?=?20, indication?=?20, drug dose?=?10 and frequency?=?10. A binary logistic regression analysis to evaluate factors associated with ‘good knowledge’ (total score?≥?40) was performed.Among 200 participants 56.5% (n?=?113) were males. Mean age was 59.7?±?8.2 years and a majority (n?=?170, 85.0%) were older than 50 years of age. Sinhala was the primary language of 91.5% (n?=?183) of participants, while English was the primary language in only two of the study participants (1.0%). Eighty four percent of the participants were educated up to secondary education or above, while 2.5% (n?=?5) had no formal education. The overall knowledge (total score-60) on prescribed medications among the study population was ‘poor’ (score?≤?20) in 46%, ‘adequate’ (score 21–40) in 36.5% and ‘good’ (score?≥?40) in 17.5%. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis indicates that Secondary (OR-1.53) and Tertiary levels (OR-2.79) of education, self-reported perception of illness as being Moderate (OR-1.23) or Severe (OR-1.70) and being educated by a doctor (as reported by patients) (OR-1.69) significantly increased the odds of having a ‘Good Knowledge of Drugs’. Majority of the patients were unable to read and understand the information written in English. The doctor’s contributed towards educating on drug information only in 33.0% of the patients.In a resource-poor setting in patients with Limited English Proficiency, lower level of education and misperception of illness severity resulted in reduced knowledge on prescribed medications. Furthermore, being educated by a doctor significantly improved knowledge. However the doctors’
A Survey on Physical Activity and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Physicians in Tertiary Care Hospitals, Mangalore
Hiral Gandhi, Vaishali K, V Prem, K Vijayakumar, Prabha Adikari, B UnniKrishnan
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background and objectives: Almost half of the adult disease burden in South Asia is attributable to non-communicable diseases. Earlier literature is limited to evaluating non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factor but, there is a limited literature evaluating physical activity (PA), a modifiable risk factor for NCD among physicians in India. We aimed to assess the NCD risk factors and physical activity using questionnaire among physicians. Methods: 100 physicians with minimum of 5 years of clinical experience, volunteered were included in the present study. NCD risk factors and physical activity were evaluated through WHO STEPS instrument and self-report PA questionnaires. They were administered through face to face interviews. Prevalence of NCD risk factors and level of PA were analyzed. Results: Age group was 37.86±8.85 years. Males and females were 52% and 48%. Alcohol and tobacco use was found in 6% and 1% subjects. HTN and DM were found in 2% population. 69% physicians were found to be in overweight category. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were high in 3% and 9% physicians. PA mean score was 1227.2±76 MET min/wk. 20% physicians were found to have low PA level. Conclusion: This study provides first data on PA, a potential modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease risk factors among physicians in India. Sitting time was found ‘often’ in them. 20% of physicians had a low level of PA and were at high risk for cardio-vascular diseases.
Prolonged Internal Displacement and Common Mental Disorders in Sri Lanka: The COMRAID Study
Chesmal Siriwardhana, Anushka Adikari, Gayani Pannala, Sisira Siribaddana, Melanie Abas, Athula Sumathipala, Robert Stewart
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064742
Abstract: Background Evidence is lacking on the mental health issues of internally displaced persons, particularly where displacement is prolonged. The COMRAID study was carried out in year 2011 as a comprehensive evaluation of Muslims in North-Western Sri Lanka who had been displaced since 1990 due to conflict, to investigate the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a randomly selected sample of internally displaced people who had migrated within last 20 years or were born in displacement. The total sample consisted of 450 adults aged 18–65 years selected from 141 settlements. Common mental disorders (CMDs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalences were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire and CIDI sub-scale respectively. Results The prevalence of any CMD was 18.8%, and prevalence for subtypes was as follows: somatoform disorder 14.0%, anxiety disorder 1.3%, major depression 5.1%, other depressive syndromes 7.3%. PTSD prevalence was 2.4%. The following factors were significantly associated with CMDs: unemployment (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.6–4.9), widowed or divorced status (4.9, 2.3–10.1) and food insecurity (1.7, 1.0–2.9). Conclusions This is the first study investigating the mental health impact of prolonged forced displacement in post-conflict Sri Lanka. Findings add new insight in to mental health issues faced by internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka and globally, highlighting the need to explore broader mental health issues of vulnerable populations affected by forced displacement.
Cutaneous Manifestations of Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections in the Central Province of Sri Lanka: A Descriptive Study
Kosala Weerakoon ,Senanayake A. M. Kularatne,Jayanthe Rajapakse,Sanjaya Adikari,Roshitha Waduge
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003179
Abstract: Background Characteristic skin lesions play a key role in clinical diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsioses and this study describes these cutaneous manifestations along with basic histological features. Methods and Findings Study was conducted at Medical Unit, Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, from November 2009 to October 2011, where a prospective data base of all rickettsial infections is maintained. Confirmation of diagnosis was made when IgM and IgG immunofluorescent antibody titre of 1/32 and >1/256 respectively. Of the 210 clinical cases, 134 had cutoff antibody titers for Rickettsia conorii antigen for confirmation. All these 134 patients had fever and skin rash, and of them 132(98%) had discrete maculopapular rash while eight (6%) had fern leaf type skin necrosis. Eight patients (6%) had healed tick bite marks. Average size of a skin lesion was 5 mm and rash involved 52% of body surface, distributed mainly in limbs and back of the chest. Generally the facial and leg skin was slightly oedematous particularly in old aged patients. Sixteen patients (12%) had pain and swelling of ankle joints where swelling extended to feet and leg. Biopsies from skin rash of six patients showed evidence of cutaneous vasculitis and of them, 247 bp region of the 17-kDa spotted fever group specific protein antigen was amplified using PCR. Conclusions A discrete maculopapular rash and occasional variations such as fern leaf shape necrosis and arthritis are found in spotted fever group. Histology found vasculitis as the pathology of these lesions.
Human Herpesvirus 6A Partially Suppresses Functional Properties of DC without Viral Replication
Rasmus K. L. Gustafsson, Elin E. Engdahl, Oscar Hammarfjord, Sanjaya B. Adikari, Magda Lourda, Jonas Klingstr?m, Mattias Svensson, Anna Fogdell-Hahn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058122
Abstract: Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) is a common virus with a worldwide distribution that has been associated with multiple sclerosis. Whether HHV-6A can replicate in dendritic cells (DC) and how the infection might modulate the functional properties of the cell are currently not well known and need further investigations. Here, we show that a non-productive infection of HHV-6A in DC leads to the up-regulation of HLA-ABC, via autocrine IFN-α signaling, as well as the up-regulation of HLA-DR and CD86. However, HHV-6A exposure reduces IL-8 secretion by DC and their capacity to stimulate allogenic T cell proliferation. The ability to suppress DC functions important for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses might be one successful strategy by which HHV-6A avoids the induction of appropriate host defense mechanisms, and thus facilitating persistent infection.
Functionality of Dengue Virus Specific Memory T Cell Responses in Individuals Who Were Hospitalized or Who Had Mild or Subclinical Dengue Infection
Chandima Jeewandara?,Thiruni N. Adikari,Laksiri Gomes?,Samitha Fernando?,R. H. Fernando?,M. K. T. Perera?,Dinuka Ariyaratne?,Achala Kamaladasa?,Maryam Salimi?,Shamini Prathapan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003673
Abstract: Background Although antibody responses to dengue virus (DENV) in naturally infected individuals have been extensively studied, the functionality of DENV specific memory T cell responses in relation to clinical disease severity is incompletely understood. Methodology/Principal findings Using ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays, and by determining cytokines produced in ELISpot supernatants, we investigated the functionality of DENV-specific memory T cell responses in a large cohort of individuals from Sri Lanka (n=338), who were naturally infected and were either hospitalized due to dengue or had mild or sub clinical dengue infection. We found that T cells of individuals with both past mild or sub clinical dengue infection and who were hospitalized produced multiple cytokines when stimulated with DENV-NS3 peptides. However, while DENV-NS3 specific T cells of those with mild/sub clinical dengue infection were more likely to produce only granzyme B (p=0.02), those who were hospitalized were more likely to produce both TNFα and IFNγ (p=0.03) or TNFα alone. We have also investigated the usefulness of a novel T cell based assay, which can be used to determine the past infecting DENV serotype. 92.4% of DENV seropositive individuals responded to at least one DENV serotype of this assay and none of the seronegatives responded. Individuals who were seronegative, but had received the Japanese encephalitis vaccine too made no responses, suggesting that the peptides used in this assay did not cross react with the Japanese encephalitis virus. Conclusions/significance The types of cytokines produced by DENV-specific memory T cells appear to influence the outcome of clinical disease severity. The novel T cell based assay, is likely to be useful in determining the past infecting DENV serotype in immune-epidemiological studies and also in dengue vaccine trials.
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