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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 342167 matches for " Jinseop S. Kim "
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From Caenorhabditis elegans to the Human Connectome: A Specific Modular Organisation Increases Metabolic, Functional, and Developmental Efficiency
Jinseop S. Kim,Marcus Kaiser
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0529
Abstract: The connectome, or the entire connectivity of a neural system represented by network, ranges various scales from synaptic connections between individual neurons to fibre tract connections between brain regions. Although the modularity they commonly show has been extensively studied, it is unclear whether connection specificity of such networks can already be fully explained by the modularity alone. To answer this question, we study two networks, the neuronal network of C. elegans and the fibre tract network of human brains yielded through diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). We compare them to their respective benchmark networks with varying modularities, which are generated by link swapping to have desired modularity values but otherwise maximally random. We find several network properties that are specific to the neural networks and cannot be fully explained by the modularity alone. First, the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length of C. elegans and human connectomes are both higher than those of the benchmark networks with similar modularity. High clustering coefficient indicates efficient local information distribution and high characteristic path length suggests reduced global integration. Second, the total wiring length is smaller than for the alternative configurations with similar modularity. This is due to lower dispersion of connections, which means each neuron in C. elegans connectome or each region of interest (ROI) in human connectome reaches fewer ganglia or cortical areas, respectively. Third, both neural networks show lower algorithmic entropy compared to the alternative arrangements. This implies that fewer rules are needed to encode for the organisation of neural systems.
Optimal Policies for Managing Invasive Species under Uncertainty  [PDF]
C. S. Kim, Marcel Aillery, Jan Lewandrowski, SeungGyu Kim
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330195
Abstract: We present an optimal control model of three stages of resources allocation for managing invasive species. Three types of temporal uncertainty are considered, involving the timing of discovery of an invasive pest, the timing of an induced technology development after the establishment and dispersion of an invasive species, and the timing of farmer adoption of induced technology as the costs of controlling the invasive species increase. Using a bioeconomic optimal control model of managing invasive species, where models in previous studies are subset within our model, we show that when sub-structured models not including all three stages are used for managing invasive species, resource allocation for adopting preventive measures before the initial discovery of an invasive pest would be supra-optimalwhile resource allocation for adopting conventional control measures after establishment and dispersion would be sub-optimal.
Comparison of characteristics among Korean American male smokers between survey and cessation studies  [PDF]
Sun S. Kim, Seongho Kim, Colleen McKay, Douglas Ziedonis
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.33040
Abstract:

This study compared characteristics of Korean American men in two studies: a telephone survey with a random sample of Korean American men who reported daily smoking versus a smoking cessation clinical trial with a convenience sample of Korean American men who reported smoking at least 10 cigarettes a day. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), both studies attempted to explain how much its theoretical variables (attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) would explain quit intentions in Korean American men. Participants in the cessation study were less likely to have health insurance coverage (χ2 [2, 271] = 138.31, p = 0.001) than those in the survey study. The cessation group was more likely to smoke in indoor offices (χ2 [1, 231] = 18.09, p = 0.003) and had higher nicotine dependence than the survey group (t269 = 3.32, p = 0.001) but these differences became insignificant when only those who smoked 10 or more cigarettes were compared. Participants in the cessation study had more positive attitudes towards quitting (t267

Organic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea
S. J. Kim, J. Kim,K. Kim
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2010,
Abstract: Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the efflux of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) in forested catchments. Concentrations of DOC and POC can be very high in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their efflux may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: (1) how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and (2) how much DOC and POC are exported from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level) and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers) in a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual efflux of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha 1 yr 1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual efflux of organic carbon was estimated to be about 10% of the Net Ecosystem carbon Exchange (NEE) obtained by eddy covariance measurement at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon efflux from forest catchments would result in an inaccurate estimation of the carbon sink strength of forest ecosystems in the monsoon East Asia.
Organic carbon sequestration and discharge from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea
S. J. Kim,J. Kim,K. Kim
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Soil infiltration and surface discharge of precipitation are critical processes that affect the sequestration and discharge of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in forested catchments. Both DOC and POC are highly concentrated in the soil surface in most forest ecosystems and their discharge may not be negligible particularly under the monsoon climate. In East Asia, however, there are little data available to evaluate the role of such processes in forest carbon budget. In this paper, we address two basic questions: 1) how does stream discharge respond to storm events in a forest catchment? and 2) how much DOC and POC are discharged from the catchment particularly during the summer monsoon period? To answer these questions, we collected hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, runoff discharge, groundwater level) and conducted hydrochemical analyses (including DOC, POC, and six tracers) for a deciduous forest catchment in Gwangneung National Arboretum in west-central Korea. Based on the end-member mixing analysis of the six storm events during the summer monsoon in 2005, the surface discharge was estimated as 30 to 80% of the total runoff discharge. The stream discharge responded to precipitation within 12 h during these storm events. The annual discharge of DOC and POC from the catchment was estimated as 0.04 and 0.05 t C ha 1 yr 1, respectively. Approximately 70% of the annual organic carbon efflux occurred during the summer monsoon period. Overall, the annual discharge of organic carbon was estimated to be 4 to 14% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) obtained by eddy covariance technique at the same site. Considering the current trends of increasing intensity and amount of summer rainfall and the large interannual variability in NEE, ignoring the organic carbon discharge from forest ecosystems would result in an overestimation (underestimation) of the strength of forests as a carbon sink (source) in the monsoon East Asia.
Euler Basis, Identities, and Their Applications
D. S. Kim,T. Kim
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/343981
Abstract: Let ={()∈?[]|deg()≤} be the (
Evaluation of Accuracy and Precision of IRMS by Using Standard Materials and Applications  [PDF]
J. Y. Hwang, B. K. Kim, M. S. Kim, J. W. Choi, T. S. Kim, W. S. Lee
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.54022
Abstract: The isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) is an instrument that measures both of the elemental contents and isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in environmental samples at the same time. In this study, we want to try to get two main goals; first, to make up for setting the analytical conditions such as accuracy and precision, second, to apply for comparing of the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio of sediments in the abandoned mine located in middle province of Korea. For the first goal, a recently introduced IRMS was used to analyze CRM (certified reference materials), which helped to make up the analytical conditions of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. So, the accuracy and precision of isotope ratios and elemental contents were also assessed simultaneously, and also the results were very satisfactory. The analytical results of carbon reference materials (EMA-P2) showed an accuracy of -2.801 × 10‰ ± 0.01‰ (2σ) and a precision of 0.009‰ in the mass range from 0.008 μg - 0.162 μg. For nitrogen reference materials (EMA-P2), an accuracy of -1.632‰ ± 0.72‰ (2σ) was obtained in the mass range from 0.082 - 0.162 mg. These values of accuracy and precision are higher than those reported by other studies. For the second goal, carbon and nitrogen isotopes in river sediment near abandoned mines were analyzed based on the established analytical conditions. The result suggested that carbon isotope ratios ranged from -22.5‰ - -7.5‰ and nitrogen isotope ratios from -1.9‰ - 7.9‰. By comparing the isotope ratios and sampling sites of sediment, we know that the nitrogen isotope values in samples of entrance area of mine are greater than those of the farm house area, which is indicating the effects of organic materials. So, we could guess that the newly accumulated organic materials were much more in the farm house area than mine entrance area. And a result of this study, the accuracy and precision tests of IRMS using certified reference materials were very satisfactory and optimum analytical conditions were established well. And also, it was found that the applications of isotopic analysis for environmental samples by using the IRMS could be very useful for the studies on tracing pollution sources.
Regulatory Role of Free Fatty Acids (FFAs)—Palmitoylation and Myristoylation  [PDF]
Chung S. Kim, Ivan A. Ross
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A1028
Abstract:

Multicellular organisms use chemical messengers to transmit signals among organelles and to other cells. Relatively small hydrophobic molecules such as lipids are excellent candidates for this signaling purpose. In most proteins, palmitic acid and other saturated and some unsaturated fatty acids are esterified to the free thiol of cysteines and to the N-amide terminal. This palmitoylation process enhances the surface hydrophobicity and membrane affinity of protein substrates and plays important roles in modulating proteins trafficking, stability, and sorting etc. Protein palmitoylation has been involved in numerous cellular processes, including signaling, apoptosis, and neuronal transmission. The palmitoylation process is involved in multiple diseases such as Huntington’s disease, various cardiovascular and T-cell mediated immune disorders, as well as cancer. Protein palmitoylation through the thioester (S-acylation) is unique in that it is the only reversible lipid modification. Our study on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and deoxynivalenol (DON) treatment to rats provides some insights to the complex role of protein palmitoylation in chemical and microbial toxicity. In contrast, myrisoylated proteins contain the 14-carbon fatty acid myristate attached via amide linkage to the N-terminal glycine residue of protein, and occur cotranslationally. The bacterial outer membrane enzyme lipid A palmitoyltransferase (PagP) confers resistance to host immune defenses by transferring a palmitate chain from a phospholipid to the lipid A component of LPS. PagP is sensitive to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) which are included among the products of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction pathway. This modification of lipid A with a palmitate appears to both and protects the pathogenic bacteria from host immune defenses and attenuates the activation of those same defenses through the TLR4 signal transduction pathway.

Anomalously Strong Scattering of Spontaneously Produced Laser Radiation in the First Free-Electron Laser and Study of Free-Electron Two-Quantum Stark Lasing in an Electric Wiggler with Quantum-Wiggler Electrodynamics
S H Kim,
S.
,H.,Kim

中国物理快报 , 2006,
Abstract: We calculate the scattering cross section of an electron with respect to the spontaneously produced laser radiation in the first free-electron laser (FEL) with quantum-wiggler electrodynamics (QWD). The cross section is 1016 times the Thomson cross section, confirming the result obtained by a previous analysis of the experimental data. A QWD calculation show that spontaneous emission in an FEL using only an electric wiggler can be very strong while amplification through net stimulated emission is practically negligible.
The traversable wormhole with classical scalar fields
S. -W. Kim,S. P. Kim
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.58.087703
Abstract: We study the Lorentzian static traversable wormholes coupled to quadratic scalar fields. We also obtain the solutions of the scalar fields and matters in the wormhole background and find that the minimal size of the wormhole should be quantized under the appropriate boundary conditions for the positive non-minimal massive scalar field.
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