Abstract:
Mouse EAMG was induced by s.c. administrations of purified acetylcholine receptor (AChR) to Crry ？/？ and age- matched WT (C57BL/6) mice. Disease severity was assessed by clinical score assessment and muscle grip strength measurements. Serum complement activity was determined by hemolytic assay. ELISA was used to detect the level of AChR specific antibodies. Splenic cells were analyzed for T and B cells subsets distribution, release of cytokines and AChR specific recall responses. Deposition of complement components at the NMJ was assessed by immunofluorescence staining.In comparison to WT EAMG, Crry ？/？ EAMG mice showed signs of augmented muscle weakness but differences, except for one time point, were not statistically significant. Serum complement activity was reduced in Crry ？/？ EAMG mice and no substantial changes in deposition of C3, C3b/iC3b and C5b-9 (MAC) at the NMJ between WT EAMG and Crry ？/？ EAMG mice were detected. Lack of Crry affected adaptive immune response. Crry ？/？ EAMG mice showed increases in the number of AChR specific splenic T-cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-4. Production of complement fixing antibodies (IgG2b, IgG2c) was also augmented. More Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines were released into the bloodstream of Crry ？/？ EAMG mice.Data suggest that Crry deficiency modulates the adaptive immune response in EAMG, but its effect on disease outcome is limited. This was due to the generally lower serum complement level caused by increased C3 turnover. Modulation of complement activity with soluble or membrane bound regulators of complement activity represents a potentially effective approach to modify autoimmune processes in MG and EAMG.

Abstract:
We present a combinatorial interpretation of Berkowitz's algorithm. Berkowitz's algorithm is the fastest known parallel algorithm for computing the characteristic polynomial of a matrix. Our combinatorial interpretation is based on ``loop covers'' introduced by Valiant, and ``clow sequences.'' Clow sequences turn out to capture very succinctly the computations performed by Berkowitz's algorithm, which otherwise is quite difficult to analyze. The main contribution of this paper is a proof of correctness of Berkowitz's algorithm in terms of clow sequences.

Abstract:
We show that Csanky's fast parallel algorithm for computing the characteristic polynomial of a matrix can be formalized in the logical theory LAP, and can be proved correct in LAP from the principle of linear independence. LAP is a natural theory for reasoning about linear algebra introduced by Cook and Soltys. Further, we show that several principles of matrix algebra, such as linear independence or the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, can be shown equivalent in the logical theory QLA. Applying the separation between complexity classes AC^0[2] contained in DET(GF(2)), we show that these principles are in fact not provable in QLA. In a nutshell, we show that linear independence is ``all there is'' to elementary linear algebra (from a proof complexity point of view), and furthermore, linear independence cannot be proved trivially (again, from a proof complexity point of view).

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of E. camaldulensis plantation established in a semi-arid area on native woody plants diversity and density. Nested quadrant plot design, having an area of 15 m × 15 m used to collect data. Totally, 37 species at the plantation and 30 species at the native woodland, belonging to 24 families, identified. Species diversity (H′) was 1.57 at the plantation and 2.09 at the woodland forest. As for density of understory woody plants (height ≥ 1 m) the plantation forest harbored 6, 604 stems/ha while the native woodland had 7, 347 stems/ha. Seedling density (height < 1 m) at the native woodland and at the plantation there were 11,436 stems/ha and 8,865 stems/ha, respectively. The similarity of woody species composition between the woodland forest and the plantation was low. However, in terms of autochthonous tree seed bank availability, authentic hypothesis seems to prove that if clear-cut patches replanted by introduced species that do not exceed 5 ha, they still significantly favour original forest regeneration and composition in a semi-arid area and surprisingly favors the regeneration of Dodonaea angustifolia and other native species important for soil conservation, timber, bee forage and medicinal use.

Abstract:
A shuffle of two strings is formed by interleaving the characters into a new string, keeping the characters of each string in order. A string is a square if it is a shuffle of two identical strings. There is a known polynomial time dynamic programming algorithm to determine if a given string z is the shuffle of two given strings x,y; however, it has been an open question whether there is a polynomial time algorithm to determine if a given string z is a square. We resolve this by proving that this problem is NP-complete via a many-one reduction from 3- Partition.

Abstract:
Although a deterministic polytime algorithm for primality testing is now known, the Rabin-Miller randomized test of primality continues being the most efficient and widely used algorithm. We prove the correctness of the Rabin-Miller algorithm in the theory V1 for polynomial time reasoning, from Fermat's little theorem. This is interesting because the Rabin-Miller algorithm is a polytime randomized algorithm, which runs in the class RP (i.e., the class of polytime Monte-Carlo algorithms), with a sampling space exponential in the length of the binary encoding of the input number. (The class RP contains polytime P.) However, we show how to express the correctness in the language of V1, and we also show that we can prove the formula expressing correctness with polytime reasoning from Fermat's Little theorem, which is generally expected to be independent of V1. Our proof is also conceptually very basic in the sense that we use the extended Euclid's algorithm, for computing greatest common divisors, as the main workhorse of the proof. For example, we make do without proving the Chinese Reminder theorem, which is used in the standard proofs.

Abstract:
Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison.Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves.The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females.Schistosoma reflexum (SR) is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by severe abdominal fissure with total eventration of viscera, marked dorsoflexion, and ankylosis of the spine and limbs. It occurs in all food animals, but is most common in cattle. SR usually requires assisted delivery, in most cases Caesarean section or foetotomy [1,2]. Although SR is rare, the high risk of dystocia in such cases is a welfare problem and the required veterinary assistance has a negative economic impact on farm economy.Most studies of SR have dealt with the morphology of the syndrome [2-4], although some authors have also proposed a genetic background [5]. However, conclusive evidence has not yet been provided.This study was performed to further evaluate a possible genetic aetiology through pedigree analysis of multiple SR cases in Czech Holstein cattle.Twenty-nine cases of SR diagnosed and reported by veterinary surgeons to the Czech surveillance program for bovine genetic disorders were included. The study was limited to Holstein and Holstein-crossbred calves fathered by sires born between Janu

Abstract:
The primary reason for founding consortia“ (open associations) of information services in the Czech Republic seems to be the possibility of obtaining access to extensive and highly expensive information sources under more convenient conditions than if each of the participating institutions had to organise this access separately. Licensing the access to information sources within special purpose association of information services is a relatively recent innovation in the Czech republic practice. It has started at the end of the nineties (except for the CrossFire and Chemical Abstracts system users). Therefore, there has not been created any methodology of selecting suitable“ members for forming a consortium nor for selection of partners, information source producers yet.

Abstract:
I prove forcing preservation theorems for products of definable partial orders preserving the cofinality of the meager or null ideal. Rectangular Ramsey theorems for related ideals follow from the proofs.

Abstract:
We isolate a combinatorial property of capacities leading to a construction of proper forcings. Then we show that many classical capacities such as the Newtonian capacity satisfy the property.