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Evaluating the buffering capacity of various soft drinks, fruit juices and tea
Singh Smita,Jindal Rahul
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: Aims and Objective : The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods : Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruit juices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis : The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results : Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruit juices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruit juices and tea. Conclusion : In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least.
Prevention of Diabetes in the NOD Mouse by Intra-muscular Injection of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Containing the Preproinsulin II Gene
Rahul M. Jindal,M. Karanam,Rita Shah
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/edr.2001.129
Abstract: Using the Adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene delivery vehicle, we have constructed a recombinant vector containing the full length rat preproinsulin gene (vLP-1). Utilizing the well described non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, an experimental group (n=10) of animals were intramuscularly (IM) injected with 107 rAAV virions containing the insulin gene and compared to a mock-injected control group (n=10). Blood glucose (glc) was then measured weekly for 16 weeks. Data showed that the experimental group contained 70% euglycemic animals (defined as glc <200mg/dL) versus 10% of the control animals (P<.05) at 14 weeks. Mean weight in the treated group was greater than the untreated group. Insulin mRNA was detected at the injection site of all of the treated animals, but not controls. Complete destruction of islets was confirmed by histology ruling out the possibility of spontaneous reversal of insulinitis. We conclude that IM delivery of the insulin gene in the NOD mouse was able to prevent clinical DM up to 14 weeks in a majority of treated animals. Our experimental data suggests that gene therapy may be an alternative treatment for IDDM in the future.
Bottle Gourd Poisoning
Anita Sharma, J. P. Sharma*, Rahul Jindal*, R. M. Kaushik.
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2006,
Abstract: Not available
Bottle Gourd Poisoning
Anita Sharma, J. P. Sharma*, Rahul Jindal*, R. M. Kaushik.
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2006,
Abstract: Not available
Analysis of Tool Wear Rate in Drilling Operation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)  [PDF]
Anil Jindal
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.111004
Abstract: Hole making had long been recognized as the most prominent machining process, requiring specialized techniques to achieve optimum cutting condition. Drilling can be described as a process where a multi-point tool is used to remove unwanted materials to produce a desired hole. It broadly covers those methods used for producing cylindrical holes in the work piece. However, high production machining and drilling with high cutting velocity, feed and depth of cut is inherently associated with generation of large amount of heat and high cutting temperature. Such high cutting temperature not only reduces dimensional accuracy and tool life but also impairs the surface integrity of the product. In this case, high pressure coolant (HPC) is very effective to reduce temperature. When temperature is increased a large amount of tool wear appears at the drill bit. In this situation, high temperature either affects roundness of the hole or chip shape and color of chip. HPC is applied in the same direction as the drill bit. HPC has reduced temperature as well as improving roundness and also provide lubrication in the tool tip and surface interface.
Unified Payment Interface—An Advancement in Payment Systems  [PDF]
Rahul Gochhwal
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.710084
Abstract: This paper studies Unified Payment Interface (UPI), a new age payment system introduced in India by National Payment Corporation of India. Unified Payment Interface is a mobile centric, real time interbank payment system which has the potential to transform and universalize digital payments in India. The paper traces the evolution of payments systems in India and examines in detail the technology behind Unified Payment Interface focusing on its architecture and security systems through empirical and theoretical literature review. UPI is a significant advancement as compared to extant payment system in terms of cost, ease of use for consumers, settlement times and security and has witnessed good user adoption. Its modular API based architecture will enable development of innovative solutions for consumers and businesses. UPI is currently in its infancy stage and development of merchant centric UPI solutions will greatly increase the user adoption. UPI can help bring a large part of the population within the ambit of digital economy and can be a great tool for financial inclusion in India.
Mass Distribution in Space-Time and Conception about Space-Time-Mass Continuum  [PDF]
Rahul Singh
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.81007
Abstract: There is a relation between space and time, which is called space-time continuum. With the help of some mathematical equations, we can establish an alternative relation between space-time and mass, treating mass as a fifth dimension. There is the concept about mass being a property of any inertial or gravitational object in space. Mass can create distortion in space. As a result of that, space-time curvature will be bent towards the massive object.
Effect of Mn Doping on Solvothermal Synthesis of CdS Nanowires  [PDF]
Zinki Jindal, N. K. Verma
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.14033
Abstract: High aspect ratio (up to 100) CdS nanowires having average diameter of 15 nm and length varying from 0.5-1.5 μm have been synthesized using solvothermal technique in ethylenediamine as a solvent at 120℃ and the effect of Mn doping on morphology and optical properties has been studied. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the typical in-ter-planar spacing and the diffraction peaks corresponding to the hexagonal wurzite phase of CdS. Morphological study has been done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the optical studies have been conducted through absorption spectra and room temperature photoluminescence (PL).
Effect of injection timing on combustion and performance of a direct injection diesel engine running on Jatropha methyl ester
S. Jindal
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: The present study aims at evaluation of effect of injection timing on the combustion, performance and emissions of a small power diesel engine, commonly used for agriculture purpose, running on pure biodiesel, prepared from Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) vegetable oil. The effect of varying injection timing was evaluated in terms of thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, power and mean effective pressure, exhaust temperature, cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. It was found that retarding the injection timing by 3 degrees enhances the thermal efficiency by about 8 percent.
Effect of engine parameters on NOx emissions with Jatropha biodiesel as fuel
S. Jindal
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2010,
Abstract: Depleting petroleum reserves on the earth and increasing concerns about the environment leads to the quest for fuels which are eco-friendly and safe for human beings. It is now well established that lower blends of biodiesel and diesel works well in the existing engines without any modifications. Use of the higher blends is restricted due to loss of efficiency and long term problems in the engine. For using higher blends of biodiesel, the engine operating parameters must be changed for recovery of power and efficiency. But these changes may affect the emissions. This study targets on investigating the effects of the engine operating parameters viz. compression ratio, fuel injection pressure, injection timing and engine speed on emissions of NOx with pure biodiesel as fuel in a small diesel engine commonly used in agricultural applications. It is found that the combined increase of compression ratio and injection pressure and retarding injection results in lower emissions of NOx as compared to the diesel fuel.
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