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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11039 matches for " Jina Park equal contributor "
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dTULP, the Drosophila melanogaster Homolog of Tubby, Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Channel Localization in Cilia
Jina Park equal contributor,Jeongmi Lee equal contributor,Jaewon Shim,Woongsu Han,Jinu Lee,Yong Chul Bae,Yun Doo Chung,Chul Hoon Kim ,Seok Jun Moon
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003814
Abstract: Mechanically gated ion channels convert sound into an electrical signal for the sense of hearing. In Drosophila melanogaster, several transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implicated to be involved in this process. TRPN (NompC) and TRPV (Inactive) channels are localized in the distal and proximal ciliary zones of auditory receptor neurons, respectively. This segregated ciliary localization suggests distinct roles in auditory transduction. However, the regulation of this localization is not fully understood. Here we show that the Drosophila Tubby homolog, King tubby (hereafter called dTULP) regulates ciliary localization of TRPs. dTULP-deficient flies show uncoordinated movement and complete loss of sound-evoked action potentials. Inactive and NompC are mislocalized in the cilia of auditory receptor neurons in the dTulp mutants, indicating that dTULP is required for proper cilia membrane protein localization. This is the first demonstration that dTULP regulates TRP channel localization in cilia, and suggests that dTULP is a protein that regulates ciliary neurosensory functions.
Genic and Global Functions for Paf1C in Chromatin Modification and Gene Expression in Arabidopsis
Sookyung Oh equal contributor,Sunchung Park equal contributor,Steven van Nocker
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000077
Abstract: In budding yeast, intragenic histone modification is linked with transcriptional elongation through the conserved regulator Paf1C. To investigate Paf1C-related function in higher eukaryotes, we analyzed the effects of loss of Paf1C on histone H3 density and patterns of H3 methylated at K4, K27, and K36 in Arabidopsis genes, and integrated this with existing gene expression data. Loss of Paf1C did not change global abundance of H3K4me3 or H3K36me2 within chromatin, but instead led to a 3′ shift in the distribution of H3K4me3 and a 5′ shift in the distribution of H3K36me2 within genes. We found that genes regulated by plant Paf1C showed strong enrichment for both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and also showed a high degree of tissue-specific expression. At the Paf1C- and PcG-regulated gene FLC, transcriptional silencing and loss of H3K4me3 and H3K36me2 were accompanied by expansion of H3K27me3 into the promoter and transcriptional start regions and further enrichment of H3K27me3 within the transcribed region. These results highlight both genic and global functions for plant Paf1C in histone modification and gene expression, and link transcriptional activity with cellular memory.
A Bacteriophage Tailspike Domain Promotes Self-Cleavage of a Human Membrane-Bound Transcription Factor, the Myelin Regulatory Factor MYRF
Zhihua Li equal contributor,Yungki Park equal contributor ,Edward M. Marcotte
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001624
Abstract: Myelination of the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to vertebrate nervous systems for efficient neural signaling. CNS myelination occurs as oligodendrocytes terminally differentiate, a process regulated in part by the myelin regulatory factor, MYRF. Using bioinformatics and extensive biochemical and functional assays, we find that MYRF is generated as an integral membrane protein that must be processed to release its transcription factor domain from the membrane. In contrast to most membrane-bound transcription factors, MYRF proteolysis seems constitutive and independent of cell- and tissue-type, as we demonstrate by reconstitution in E. coli and yeast. The apparent absence of physiological cues raises the question as to how and why MYRF is processed. By using computational methods capable of recognizing extremely divergent sequence homology, we identified a MYRF protein domain distantly related to bacteriophage tailspike proteins. Although occurring in otherwise unrelated proteins, the phage domains are known to chaperone the tailspike proteins' trimerization and auto-cleavage, raising the hypothesis that the MYRF domain might contribute to a novel activation method for a membrane-bound transcription factor. We find that the MYRF domain indeed serves as an intramolecular chaperone that facilitates MYRF trimerization and proteolysis. Functional assays confirm that the chaperone domain-mediated auto-proteolysis is essential both for MYRF's transcriptional activity and its ability to promote oligodendrocyte maturation. This work thus reveals a previously unknown key step in CNS myelination. These data also reconcile conflicting observations of this protein family, different members of which have been identified as transmembrane or nuclear proteins. Finally, our data illustrate a remarkable evolutionary repurposing between bacteriophages and eukaryotes, with a chaperone domain capable of catalyzing trimerization-dependent auto-proteolysis in two entirely distinct protein and cellular contexts, in one case participating in bacteriophage tailspike maturation and in the other activating a key transcription factor for CNS myelination.
Histone H3K9 Trimethylase Eggless Controls Germline Stem Cell Maintenance and Differentiation
Xiaoxi Wang equal contributor,Lei Pan equal contributor,Su Wang equal contributor,Jian Zhou,William McDowell,Jungeun Park,Jeff Haug,Karen Staehling,Hong Tang,Ting Xie
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002426
Abstract: Epigenetic regulation plays critical roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, fate determination, and survival. It has been shown to control self-renewal and lineage differentiation of embryonic stem cells. However, epigenetic regulation of adult stem cell function remains poorly defined. Drosophila ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) are a productive adult stem cell system for revealing regulatory mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation. In this study, we show that Eggless (Egg), a H3K9 methyltransferase in Drosophila, is required in GSCs for controlling self-renewal and in escort cells for regulating germ cell differentiation. egg mutant ovaries primarily exhibit germ cell differentiation defects in young females and gradually lose GSCs with time, indicating that Egg regulates both germ cell maintenance and differentiation. Marked mutant egg GSCs lack expression of trimethylated H3K9 (H3k9me3) and are rapidly lost from the niche, but their mutant progeny can still differentiate into 16-cell cysts, indicating that Egg is required intrinsically to control GSC self-renewal but not differentiation. Interestingly, BMP-mediated transcriptional repression of differentiation factor bam in marked egg mutant GSCs remains normal, indicating that Egg is dispensable for BMP signaling in GSCs. Normally, Bam and Bgcn interact with each other to promote GSC differentiation. Interestingly, marked double mutant egg bgcn GSCs are still lost, but their progeny are able to differentiate into 16-cell cysts though bgcn mutant GSCs normally do not differentiate, indicating that Egg intrinsically controls GSC self-renewal through repressing a Bam/Bgcn-independent pathway. Surprisingly, RNAi-mediated egg knockdown in escort cells leads to their gradual loss and a germ cell differentiation defect. The germ cell differentiation defect is at least in part attributed to an increase in BMP signaling in the germ cell differentiation niche. Therefore, this study has revealed the essential roles of histone H3K9 trimethylation in controlling stem cell maintenance and differentiation through distinct mechanisms.
Network-Based Analysis of Affected Biological Processes in Type 2 Diabetes Models
Manway Liu equal contributor ,Arthur Liberzon equal contributor,Sek Won Kong equal contributor,Weil R Lai,Peter J Park,Isaac S Kohane,Simon Kasif
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030096
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder associated with multiple genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. We additionally identified a network of protein–protein interactions between members from the two gene sets that may facilitate signaling between them. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein–protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder.
Anoxia-Reoxygenation Regulates Mitochondrial Dynamics through the Hypoxia Response Pathway, SKN-1/Nrf, and Stomatin-Like Protein STL-1/SLP-2
Piya Ghose equal contributor,Eun Chan Park equal contributor,Alexandra Tabakin,Nathaly Salazar-Vasquez,Christopher Rongo
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004063
Abstract: Many aerobic organisms encounter oxygen-deprived environments and thus must have adaptive mechanisms to survive such stress. It is important to understand how mitochondria respond to oxygen deprivation given the critical role they play in using oxygen to generate cellular energy. Here we examine mitochondrial stress response in C. elegans, which adapt to extreme oxygen deprivation (anoxia, less than 0.1% oxygen) by entering into a reversible suspended animation state of locomotory arrest. We show that neuronal mitochondria undergo DRP-1-dependent fission in response to anoxia and undergo refusion upon reoxygenation. The hypoxia response pathway, including EGL-9 and HIF-1, is not required for anoxia-induced fission, but does regulate mitochondrial reconstitution during reoxygenation. Mutants for egl-9 exhibit a rapid refusion of mitochondria and a rapid behavioral recovery from suspended animation during reoxygenation; both phenotypes require HIF-1. Mitochondria are significantly larger in egl-9 mutants after reoxygenation, a phenotype similar to stress-induced mitochondria hyperfusion (SIMH). Anoxia results in mitochondrial oxidative stress, and the oxidative response factor SKN-1/Nrf is required for both rapid mitochondrial refusion and rapid behavioral recovery during reoxygenation. In response to anoxia, SKN-1 promotes the expression of the mitochondrial resident protein Stomatin-like 1 (STL-1), which helps facilitate mitochondrial dynamics following anoxia. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved anoxic stress response involving changes in mitochondrial fission and fusion.
MiRNA Control of Vegetative Phase Change in Trees
Jia-Wei Wang equal contributor ,Mee Yeon Park equal contributor,Ling-Jian Wang,Yeonjong Koo,Xiao-Ya Chen,Detlef Weigel,R. Scott Poethig
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002012
Abstract: After germination, plants enter juvenile vegetative phase and then transition to an adult vegetative phase before producing reproductive structures. The character and timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition vary widely between species. In annual plants, this transition occurs soon after germination and usually involves relatively minor morphological changes, whereas in trees and other perennial woody plants it occurs after months or years and can involve major changes in shoot architecture. Whether this transition is controlled by the same mechanism in annual and perennial plants is unknown. In the annual forb Arabidopsis thaliana and in maize (Zea mays), vegetative phase change is controlled by the sequential activity of microRNAs miR156 and miR172. miR156 is highly abundant in seedlings and decreases during the juvenile-to-adult transition, while miR172 has an opposite expression pattern. We observed similar changes in the expression of these genes in woody species with highly differentiated, well-characterized juvenile and adult phases (Acacia confusa, Acacia colei, Eucalyptus globulus, Hedera helix, Quercus acutissima), as well as in the tree Populus x canadensis, where vegetative phase change is marked by relatively minor changes in leaf morphology and internode length. Overexpression of miR156 in transgenic P. x canadensis reduced the expression of miR156-targeted SPL genes and miR172, and it drastically prolonged the juvenile phase. Our results indicate that miR156 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of vegetative phase change in both annual herbaceous plants and perennial trees.
A Robust Approach to Identifying Tissue-Specific Gene Expression Regulatory Variants Using Personalized Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Je-Hyuk Lee equal contributor ,In-Hyun Park equal contributor,Yuan Gao,Jin Billy Li,Zhe Li,George Q. Daley,Kun Zhang ?,George M. Church ?
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000718
Abstract: Normal variation in gene expression due to regulatory polymorphisms is often masked by biological and experimental noise. In addition, some regulatory polymorphisms may become apparent only in specific tissues. We derived human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult skin primary fibroblasts and attempted to detect tissue-specific cis-regulatory variants using in vitro cell differentiation. We used padlock probes and high-throughput sequencing for digital RNA allelotyping and measured allele-specific gene expression in primary fibroblasts, lymphoblastoid cells, iPS cells, and their differentiated derivatives. We show that allele-specific expression is both cell type and genotype-dependent, but the majority of detectable allele-specific expression loci remains consistent despite large changes in the cell type or the experimental condition following iPS reprogramming, except on the X-chromosome. We show that our approach to mapping cis-regulatory variants reduces in vitro experimental noise and reveals additional tissue-specific variants using skin-derived human iPS cells.
Negative Regulation of Type I IFN Expression by OASL1 Permits Chronic Viral Infection and CD8+ T-Cell Exhaustion
Myeong Sup Lee equal contributor,Chan Hee Park equal contributor,Yun Hee Jeong,Young-Joon Kim ,Sang-Jun Ha
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003478
Abstract: The type I interferons (IFN-Is) are critical not only in early viral control but also in prolonged T-cell immune responses. However, chronic viral infections such as those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice overcome this early IFN-I barrier and induce viral persistence and exhaustion of T-cell function. Although various T-cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors are known to contribute to induction of chronic conditions, the roles of IFN-I negative regulators in chronic viral infections have been largely unexplored. Herein, we explored whether 2′–5′ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1), a recently defined IFN-I negative regulator, plays a key role in the virus-specific T-cell response and viral defense against chronic LCMV. To this end, we infected Oasl1 knockout and wild-type mice with LCMV CL-13 (a chronic virus) and monitored T-cell responses, serum cytokine levels, and viral titers. LCMV CL-13-infected Oasl1 KO mice displayed a sustained level of serum IFN-I, which was primarily produced by splenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells, during the very early phase of infection (2–3 days post-infection). Oasl1 deficiency also led to the accelerated elimination of viremia and induction of a functional antiviral CD8 T-cell response, which critically depended on IFN-I receptor signaling. Together, these results demonstrate that OASL1-mediated negative regulation of IFN-I production at an early phase of infection permits viral persistence and suppresses T-cell function, suggesting that IFN-I negative regulators, including OASL1, could be exciting new targets for preventing chronic viral infection.
Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions of Protein Kinase B Define Its Activation In Vivo
Véronique Calleja equal contributor,Damien Alcor equal contributor,Michel Laguerre,Jongsun Park,Borivoj Vojnovic,Brian A Hemmings,Julian Downward,Peter J Parker ,Banafshé Larijani
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050095
Abstract: Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is a pivotal regulator of diverse metabolic, phenotypic, and antiapoptotic cellular controls and has been shown to be a key player in cancer progression. Here, using fluorescent reporters, we shown in cells that, contrary to in vitro analyses, 3-phosphoinositide–dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) is complexed to its substrate, PKB. The use of F?rster resonance energy transfer detected by both frequency domain and two-photon time domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy has lead to novel in vivo findings. The preactivation complex of PKB and PDK1 is maintained in an inactive state through a PKB intramolecular interaction between its pleckstrin homology (PH) and kinase domains, in a “PH-in” conformer. This domain–domain interaction prevents the PKB activation loop from being phosphorylated by PDK1. The interactive regions for this intramolecular PKB interaction were predicted through molecular modeling and tested through mutagenesis, supporting the derived model. Physiologically, agonist-induced phosphorylation of PKB by PDK1 occurs coincident to plasma membrane recruitment, and we further shown here that this process is associated with a conformational change in PKB at the membrane, producing a “PH-out” conformer and enabling PDK1 access the activation loop. The active, phosphorylated, “PH-out” conformer can dissociate from the membrane and retain this conformation to phosphorylate substrates distal to the membrane. These in vivo studies provide a new model for the mechanism of activation of PKB. This study takes a crucial widely studied regulator (physiology and pathology) and addresses the fundamental question of the dynamic in vivo behaviour of PKB with a detailed molecular mechanism. This has important implications not only in extending our understanding of this oncogenic protein kinase but also in opening up distinct opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
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