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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 29798 matches for " Jin-Won Kwon "
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A closer look at the increase in suicide rates in South Korea from 1986–2005
Jin-Won Kwon, Heeran Chun, Sung-il Cho
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-72
Abstract: We used data on total mortality and suicide rates from 1986 to 2005 published online by the Korean National Statistical Office (NSO) and extracted data for individuals under 80 years old. The analyses of the trends for 1) the sex-age-specific total mortality rate, 2) the sex-age-specific suicide rate, and 3) the sex-age-specific proportional suicide rate in 1986–2005 were conducted. To demonstrate the birth cohort effect on the proportional suicide rate, the synthetic birth cohort from 1924 to 1978 from the successive cross-sectional data was constructed.Age standardized suicide rates in South Korea increased by 98% in men (from 15.3 to 30.3 per 100,000) and by 124% in women (from 5.8 to 13.0 per 100,000). In both genders, the proportional increase in suicide rates was more prominent among the younger group aged under 45, despite the absolute increase being attributed to the older group. There were distinct cohort effects underlying increasing suicide rates particularly among younger age groups.Increasing suicide rates in Korea was composed of a greater absolute increase in the older group and a greater proportional increase in the younger group.Suicide is a dramatic example of individual behaviour influenced by social integration or regulation, as originally noted by Durkheim [1]. Therefore, not only individual factors but also socioeconomic changes should be considered to explain suicide patterns in a society. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics from 1965 to 1999, suicide rates had a variation and showed mixed trends between countries and age-groups. While total suicide mortality rates in all ages have been decreasing or in a steady status in most developed countries after 1990s, it has been increasing in some countries especially which have suffered huge economic turmoil such as Russia. There are some reports on suicide rates by age group. In a few countries including New Zealand and Australia, there were rising trends in young people [2,3]. I
Gender Differences and Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Overweight among Older Korean People
Jin-Won Noh, Minkyung Jo, Taewook Huh, Jooyoung Cheon, Young Dae Kwon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097990
Abstract: Background The ever-increasing older population and its association with serious overweight problems have garnered much attention. The correlation between being overweight and socioeconomic status factors could be helpful for understanding the inequalities among the overweight population. We examined the correlation between being overweight and some key variables, such as demographics, socioeconomic status, general health status, and health behavior in a large sample of older individuals, by each gender. Methods We used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and it included 8,157 participants who were 45 years or older. To understand the relationship between the overweight participants in accordance to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and health behaviors, a weighted chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted by separating variables related to overweight, according to the genders. Results The number of people in the normal group was 6,347 (77.8%), while the people who were considered overweight were 1,810 (22.2%). Women (n = 4,583) constituted 52.7% of the subject, 24.9% of whom were classified as overweight. Meanwhile, 20.6% of the 47.3% (n = 3,574) of the sample who were men were classified as overweight. Participants between the ages of 45 and 64 with chronic diseases were more likely to be overweight. Men in the 4th quartile of household income were more likely to be overweight than those who were in the 1st quartile, in contrast, while unemployed women with lower education levels and urban residents were at greater risk for being overweight. Conclusions Among the men, health status and health behavior appeared to show a correlation with being overweight; however, among women, socioeconomic status factors were strongly related to being overweight. These findings appear to support the association of gender-specifics with the prevalence of being overweight.
Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary
Kang Hae,Arai Satoru,Hope Andrew,Song Jin-Won
Virology Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation.
The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells
Hye-Jin Boo,Ji-Young Hong,Sang-Cheol Kim,Jung-Il Kang,Min-Kyoung Kim,Eun-Ji Kim,Jin-Won Hyun,Young-Sang Koh,Eun-Sook Yoo,Jung-Mi Kwon,Hee-Kyoung Kang
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11082982
Abstract: Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan obtained from Undaria pinnatifida in PC-3 cells, human prostate cancer cells. Fucoidan induced the apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) and the inactivation of p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. In addition, fucoidan also induced the up-regulation of p21 Cip1/Waf and down-regulation of E2F-1 cell-cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, fucoidan activated GSK-3β that resulted in the decrease of β-catenin level, followed by the decrease of c-myc and cyclin D1 expressions, target genes of β-catenin in PC-3 cells. These results suggested that fucoidan treatment could induce intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the inactivation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data support that fucoidan might have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer.
“cu-coo”: Can You Recognize My Stepparents? – A Study of Host-Specific Male Call Divergence in the Common Cuckoo
Won-Ju Jung, Jin-Won Lee, Jeong-Chil Yoo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090468
Abstract: The presence of multiple host-specific races in the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus has long been recognized as an evolutionary enigma but how this genetic divergence could be maintained is still equivocal. Some recent studies supported biparental genetic contribution in maintaining the host-races, implying the necessity that they should recognize and mate assortatively with those who belong to the same host-race. One potential mechanism to accomplish this is that males may produce distinctive calls according to host-specific lineages. In order to test this hypothesis, we carried out a comparative study for male cuckoo calls recorded from three distant populations, where two populations share a same host species while the other parasitizes a different host species. Populations with similar habitat structures, maintaining comparable distance interval (ca. 150 km) between neighboring ones, were selected so as to minimize any other causes of vocal differentiation except the pattern of host use. By comparing the vocal characteristics of male cuckoos at the level of individual as well as population, we found that individual males indeed produced different calls in terms of spectral and temporal features. However, these differences disappeared when we compared the calls at the population level according to host species and geographic location. In conclusion, it seems unlikely for the cuckoos to identify the stepparent of male cuckoos based solely on the vocal characteristics, although they may be able to use this cue for individual recognition. Future studies including detailed morphological and genetic comparisons will be worthwhile to further elucidate this issue.
An Experimental Test of the Information Model for Negotiation of Biparental Care
Jessica Meade,Ki-Baek Nam,Jin-Won Lee,Ben J. Hatchwell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019684
Abstract: Theoretical modelling of biparental care suggests that it can be a stable strategy if parents partially compensate for changes in behaviour by their partners. In empirical studies, however, parents occasionally match rather than compensate for the actions of their partners. The recently proposed “information model” adds to the earlier theory by factoring in information on brood value and/or need into parental decision-making. This leads to a variety of predicted parental responses following a change in partner work-rate depending on the information available to parents.
Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary
Hae Kang, Satoru Arai, Andrew G Hope, Jin-Won Song, Joseph A Cook, Richard Yanagihara
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-208
Abstract: A paradigm-altering chapter in hantavirology is unfolding with the discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae), including the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) [1], Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) [2], masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) [3], dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) [3], Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) [4] and Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) [5]. Also, whole-genome analysis of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) [6,7], demonstrates a separate phylogenetic clade, consistent with an early evolutionary divergence from rodent-borne hantaviruses [8,9]. Moreover, recent identification of hantaviruses in moles (Family Talpidae) further challenges the conventional view that rodents are the primordial reservoir hosts of hantaviruses, and suggests that their evolutionary origins and zoogeographic history are far more ancient and complex than formerly conjectured [10-12].Previous analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), detected in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in the Swiss canton of Graubünden [13], corroborates earlier reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia, Belgium and the former Yugoslavia [14-16]. As its name implies, the Eurasian common shrew (Subfamily Soricinae) is among the most widely dispersed small mammal species in Eurasia. Its vast geographic range, which extends throughout Northern Europe, including Scandinavia and Great Britain (but excluding Ireland), and across Russia (Fig. 1), provided an opportunity to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of SWSV.Archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000 (Table 1 and Fig. 1), were retrieved from deep-freeze storage at the Museum of
Integrating Fingerprint Verification into the Smart Card-Based Healthcare Information System
Daesung Moon,Yongwha Chung,Sung Bum Pan,Jin-Won Park
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/845893
Abstract: As VLSI technology has been improved, a smart card employing 32-bit processors has been released, and more personal information such as medical, financial data can be stored in the card. Thus, it becomes important to protect personal information stored in the card. Verification of the card holder's identity using a fingerprint has advantages over the present practices of Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) and passwords. However, the computational workload of fingerprint verification is much heavier than that of the typical PIN-based solution. In this paper, we consider three strategies to implement fingerprint verification in a smart card environment and how to distribute the modules of fingerprint verification between the smart card and the card reader. We first evaluate the number of instructions of each step of a typical fingerprint verification algorithm, and estimate the execution time of several cryptographic algorithms to guarantee the security/privacy of the fingerprint data transmitted in the smart card with the client-server environment. Based on the evaluation results, we analyze each scenario with respect to the security level and the real-time execution requirements in order to implement fingerprint verification in the smart card with the client-server environment.
Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)
Jin-Won Song, Se Gu, Shannon N Bennett, Satoru Arai, Maria Puorger, Monika Hilbe, Richard Yanagihara
Virology Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-4-114
Abstract: Viruses antigenically related to Hantaan virus (HTNV), the prototype virus of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, have been isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus), greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) and Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) [1-4], indicating that shrews are capable of serving as incidental hosts of hantaviruses typically harbored by rodents. Insectivores, or soricomorphs, also appear to harbor genetically distinct hantaviruses, as evidenced by the recent demonstration of Camp Ripley virus (RPLV) in the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) [5], Cao Bang virus (CBNV) in the Chinese mole shrew [6], Tanganya virus (TGNV) in the Therese shrew (Crocidura theresae) [7], and Ash River virus and Jemez Springs virus in the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) and the dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus), respectively [8]. Moreover, Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a previously unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew [9,10], is now known to be a bona fide shrew-borne hantavirus [11-14].Earlier reports of hantaviral antigens in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), alpine shrew (Sorex alpinus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), captured in European Russia and the former Yugoslavia [15-17], have largely gone unnoticed. In this short report, we present the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of a new hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), detected in the Eurasian common shrew. These findings add to the expanding database on soricid-associated hantaviruses and forecast that many more hantaviruses will be found in diverse shrew species throughout Eurasia.Liver tissue from three Crocidura leucodon and lung tissue from one Neomys anomalus and five Sorex araneus, captured during August and October 2006, in the village of Seewis (46°59'N, 9°38'E), located in the Swiss canton of Graubünden, a region endemic for Borna disease located approximately 130 kilometers east of Zu
Evolutionary Insights from a Genetically Divergent Hantavirus Harbored by the European Common Mole (Talpa europaea)
Hae Ji Kang, Shannon N. Bennett, Laarni Sumibcay, Satoru Arai, Andrew G. Hope, Gabor Mocz, Jin-Won Song, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006149
Abstract: Background The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) from widely separated geographic regions challenges the hypothesis that rodents (Order Rodentia, Family Muridae and Cricetidae) are the primordial reservoir hosts of hantaviruses and also predicts that other soricomorphs harbor hantaviruses. Recently, novel hantavirus genomes have been detected in moles of the Family Talpidae, including the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides) and American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii). We present new insights into the evolutionary history of hantaviruses gained from a highly divergent hantavirus, designated Nova virus (NVAV), identified in the European common mole (Talpa europaea) captured in Hungary. Methodology/Principal Findings Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the full-length S- and L-genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity of 54–65% and 46–63% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, between NVAV and representative rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. Despite the high degree of sequence divergence, the predicted secondary structure of the NVAV nucleocapsid protein exhibited the characteristic coiled-coil domains at the amino-terminal end, and the L-segment motifs, typically found in hantaviruses, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV formed a distinct clade that was evolutionarily distant from all other hantaviruses. Conclusions Newly identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles support long-standing virus-host relationships and suggest that ancestral soricomorphs, rather than rodents, may have been the early or original mammalian hosts.
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