Abstract:
The current penalties in China are not sufficient to effectively curb pedophilia. Chemical castration is not the corporal punishment in real sense but indicates reducing the medical treatment of the criminal’s lust by injecting anti-androgen drugs without causing perpetual harm to the criminal’s body. It includes many aspects such as penalty execution procedure & object, treatment position, and penalty execution replacement & guarantee, etc. There are characteristic regulations on it in many states of America. The drastic argument on issues including the constitutionality, fairness, effectiveness and economy of the penalty is held in the American academic circle. Chemical castration has remarkable effect in urging catamite crime, which is worth of referring to for Chinese criminal law. However, it is necessary to take precaution against the limitation in design of the specific system.

Abstract:
We investigated possible superfluid phases at finite temperature in a two-component Fermi gas with density imbalance. In the frame of a general four-fermion interaction theory, we solved in the BCS region the gap equations for the pairing gap and pairing momentum under the restriction of fixed number densities, and analyzed the stability of different phases by calculating the superfluid density and number susceptibilities. The homogeneous superfluid is stable only at high temperature and low number asymmetry, the inhomogeneous LOFF survives at low temperature and high number asymmetry, and in between them there exists another possible inhomogeneous phase, that of phase separation. The critical temperatures and the orders of the phase transitions among the superfluid phases and normal phase are calculated analytically and numerically. The phase diagram we obtained in the temperature and number asymmetry plane is quite different from the one in temperature and chemical potential difference plane for a system with fixed chemical potentials.

Abstract:
Four of the five expected Goldstone modes, which will be eaten up by gauge fields, in neutral two-flavor color superconductor are actually pseudo-Goldstone modes, and their degenerated mass is exactly the magnitude of the color chemical potential, which is introduced to guarantee the color neutrality at moderate baryon density.

Abstract:
The diquark condensate susceptibility in neutral color superconductor at moderate baryon density is calculated in the frame of two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. When color chemical potential is introduced to keep charge neutrality, the diquark condensate susceptibility is negative in the directions without diquark condensate in color space, which may be regarded as a signal of the instability of the conventional ground state with only diquark condensate in the color 3 direction.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluidity and the associated Nambu-Goldstone modes in a three-flavor atomic Fermi gas with SU(3) global symmetry. The s-wave pairing occurs in flavor anti-triplet channel due to the Pauli principle, and the superfluid state contains both gapped and gapless fermionic excitations. Corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of the SU(3) symmetry to a SU(2) symmetry with five broken generators, there are only three Nambu-Goldstone modes, one is with linear dispersion law and two are with quadratic dispersion law. The other two expected Nambu-Goldstone modes become massive with a mass gap of the order of the fermion energy gap in a wide coupling range. The abnormal number of Nambu-Goldstone modes, the quadratic dispersion law and the mass gap have significant effect on the low temperature thermodynamics of the matter.

Abstract:
The fermion Cooper pairing with unequal masses is investigated in a standard field theory approach. We derived the superfluid density and Meissner mass squared of the U(1) gauge field in a general two species model and found that the often used proportional relation between the two quantities is broken down when the fermion masses are unequal. In weak coupling region, the superfluid density is always negative but the Meissner mass squared becomes mostly positive when the mass ratio between the pairing fermions is large enough. We established a proper momentum configuration of the LOFF pairing with unequal masses and showed that the LOFF state is energetically favored due to the negative superfluid density. The single plane wave LOFF state is physically equivalent to an anisotropic state with a spontaneously generated superflow. The extension to finite range interaction is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
We investigated two pion condensed phases in the frame of the two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model at finite baryon density: the homogeneous and isotropic Sarma phase and inhomogeneous and anisotropic Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fudde-Ferrell(LOFF) phase. At small isospin chemical potential $\mu_I$, the Sarma state is free from the Sarma instability and magnetic instability due to the strong coupling and large enough effective quark mass. At large $\mu_I$, while the Sarma instability can be cured via fixing baryon density $n_B$ to be nonzero, its magnetic instability implies that the LOFF state is more favored than the Sarma state. In the intermediate $\mu_I$ region, the stable ground state is the Sarma state at higher $n_B$ and LOFF state at lower $n_B$.

Abstract:
We investigate neutral quark matter with homogeneous and inhomogeneous color condensates at finite temperature in the frame of an extended NJL model. By calculating the Meissner masses squared and gap susceptibility, the uniform color superconductor is stable only in a temperature window close to the critical temperature and becomes unstable against LOFF phase, mixed phase and gluonic phase at low temperatures. The introduction of the inhomogeneous phases leads to disappearance of the strange intermediate temperature 2SC/g2SC and changes the phase diagram of neutral dense quark matter significantly.

Abstract:
We investigate the phase structure of homogeneous and inhomogeneous neutron-proton condensate in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. At extremely low nuclear density the condensed matter is in homogeneous phase at any temperature, while in general case it is in Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde -Ferrell phase at low temperature. In comparison with the homogeneous superfluid, the inhomogeneous superfluid can survive at higher nuclear density and higher isospin asymmetry.

Abstract:
A general analysis for the competition between breached pairing (BP) and LOFF pairing mechanisms in asymmetric fermion superfluids is presented in the frame of a four fermion interaction model. Two physical conditions which can induce mismatched Fermi surfaces are considered: (1) fixed chemical potential asymmetry $\delta\mu$ and (2) fixed fermion number asymmetry $\alpha$. In case (1), the BP state is ruled out because of Sarma instability and LOFF state is thermodynamically stable in a narrow window of $\delta\mu$. In case (2), while the Sarma instability can be avoided and both the BP and LOFF states can survive provided $\alpha$ is less than the corresponding critical value, the BP state suffers magnetic instability and the LOFF state is always thermodynamically stable. While the LOFF window in case (2) is much larger than the one in the conventional case (1), for small $\alpha$ the longitudinal superfluid density of the LOFF state is negative and it suffers also magnetic instability.