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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8017 matches for " Jim Pulokas "
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An Integrated Micro- and Macroarchitectural Analysis of the Drosophila Brain by Computer-Assisted Serial Section Electron Microscopy
Albert Cardona,Stephan Saalfeld,Stephan Preibisch,Benjamin Schmid,Anchi Cheng,Jim Pulokas,Pavel Tomancak,Volker Hartenstein
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000502
Abstract: The analysis of microcircuitry (the connectivity at the level of individual neuronal processes and synapses), which is indispensable for our understanding of brain function, is based on serial transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or one of its modern variants. Due to technical limitations, most previous studies that used serial TEM recorded relatively small stacks of individual neurons. As a result, our knowledge of microcircuitry in any nervous system is very limited. We applied the software package TrakEM2 to reconstruct neuronal microcircuitry from TEM sections of a small brain, the early larval brain of Drosophila melanogaster. TrakEM2 enables us to embed the analysis of the TEM image volumes at the microcircuit level into a light microscopically derived neuro-anatomical framework, by registering confocal stacks containing sparsely labeled neural structures with the TEM image volume. We imaged two sets of serial TEM sections of the Drosophila first instar larval brain neuropile and one ventral nerve cord segment, and here report our first results pertaining to Drosophila brain microcircuitry. Terminal neurites fall into a small number of generic classes termed globular, varicose, axiform, and dendritiform. Globular and varicose neurites have large diameter segments that carry almost exclusively presynaptic sites. Dendritiform neurites are thin, highly branched processes that are almost exclusively postsynaptic. Due to the high branching density of dendritiform fibers and the fact that synapses are polyadic, neurites are highly interconnected even within small neuropile volumes. We describe the network motifs most frequently encountered in the Drosophila neuropile. Our study introduces an approach towards a comprehensive anatomical reconstruction of neuronal microcircuitry and delivers microcircuitry comparisons between vertebrate and insect neuropile.
An Integrated Micro- and Macroarchitectural Analysis of the Drosophila Brain by Computer-Assisted Serial Section Electron Microscopy
Albert Cardona,Stephan Saalfeld,Stephan Preibisch,Benjamin Schmid,Anchi Cheng,Jim Pulokas,Pavel Tomancak,Volker Hartenstein
PLOS Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000502
Abstract: The analysis of microcircuitry (the connectivity at the level of individual neuronal processes and synapses), which is indispensable for our understanding of brain function, is based on serial transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or one of its modern variants. Due to technical limitations, most previous studies that used serial TEM recorded relatively small stacks of individual neurons. As a result, our knowledge of microcircuitry in any nervous system is very limited. We applied the software package TrakEM2 to reconstruct neuronal microcircuitry from TEM sections of a small brain, the early larval brain of Drosophila melanogaster. TrakEM2 enables us to embed the analysis of the TEM image volumes at the microcircuit level into a light microscopically derived neuro-anatomical framework, by registering confocal stacks containing sparsely labeled neural structures with the TEM image volume. We imaged two sets of serial TEM sections of the Drosophila first instar larval brain neuropile and one ventral nerve cord segment, and here report our first results pertaining to Drosophila brain microcircuitry. Terminal neurites fall into a small number of generic classes termed globular, varicose, axiform, and dendritiform. Globular and varicose neurites have large diameter segments that carry almost exclusively presynaptic sites. Dendritiform neurites are thin, highly branched processes that are almost exclusively postsynaptic. Due to the high branching density of dendritiform fibers and the fact that synapses are polyadic, neurites are highly interconnected even within small neuropile volumes. We describe the network motifs most frequently encountered in the Drosophila neuropile. Our study introduces an approach towards a comprehensive anatomical reconstruction of neuronal microcircuitry and delivers microcircuitry comparisons between vertebrate and insect neuropile.
The Impact of a Drug Safety Warning on Discussions between Doctors and Their Patients; the Case of Rosiglitazone  [PDF]
Jim Nuovo
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.23024
Abstract: The goal of this study was to track the influence of a highly publicized report on discussions between doctors and their patients and prescribing decisions made in response to concerns about potential medication adverse side effects. This was a retrospective analysis of a primary care network’s electronic medical record database. From a diabetes registry of 12, 246 patients, 329 were identified as taking rosiglitazone prior to the June 14, 2007 release of an article in the New England Journal of Medicine; the article suggesting an increased risk of myocardial events. The entire content of all office visits, telephone messages, and medication lists for each patient were reviewed over a 2-year period subsequent to the article’s publication. Doctor/patient discussions regarding concerns for rosiglitazone were catalogued including the physician’s treatment recommendations. There were documented discussions on rosiglitazone’s potential adverse side effects for 64 patients; 19.5 percent of this population. All of the discussions occurred between June 15 and October 30, 2007. Of the entire group, 59.3 percent (N = 195) remained on rosiglitazone. For those advised to continue rosiglitazone, the provider indicated that he/she wanted more data before determining if the drug was not safe or discounted the validity of the safety concerns. For those advised to discontinue rosiglitazone, 112 (83.6 percent) were placed on pioglitazone. An article suggesting potential adverse effects of rosiglitazone resulted in a documented discussion in 19.5 percent of patients on this medication. These findings suggest an awareness of this publication by patients, presumably derived from media reports. However, an awareness of this concern did not result in a substantial change in practice.The majority of patients remained on rosiglitazone. The content of these discussions suggest that most physicians’ recommended waiting for more published data before considering a change. While many factors influence physician’s prescribing behavior, this study demonstrates how a highly publicized report influences the doctor/ patient dialogue.
Organic Wastes to Increase CO2 Absorption  [PDF]
Manuel Jiménez Aguilar
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy (IJCCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcce.2014.34005
Abstract: The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various organic wastes on the ability of urine in absorbing CO2. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O), poultry litter (P) or meat bone meal (M) was used on the absorption of CO2 from a gas bottle. The absorption capacity (1.35 - 2.85 gCO2/gNH4) was bigger than other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The range of CO2 absorption was significantly bigger for the organic mixtures P and PM with urine (9.1 - 11.8) g/L than urine alone 6.5 g/L. These organic wastes could be used to increase CO2 absorption in urine and reduce gas emissions.
The Effects of Psychological Skills Training on Mental Toughness and Psychological Well-Being of Student-Athletes  [PDF]
Jim Golby, Phillippa Wood
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76092
Abstract:

This study examined the effects of a psychological skills intervention (PST) designed to enhance the mental toughness and psychological well-being of student-athlete rowers (N = 16). Within this context, PWB was conceptualized by an amalgamation of the following psychological constructs; self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy, positive affect and dispositional optimism. Progress was examined at three times evenly dispersed over the course of the six-month intervention, pre-, mid- and post-intervention. The intervention was solution-focused and informed by Dweck’s (2009) theory of a growth mindset and Goldberg’s (1998) psychological strategies to develop mental toughness. The study design was a 2 (group) × 3 (time) two-way MANOVA with repeated measures on one factor (time). Various measures of mental toughness and positive psychological constructs were utilised. Over the course of the intervention, MT significantly improved, in addition to perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem and positive affect. Positive significant relationships were observed between components of MT and each of the positive measures; which lends support to the conceptualization of MT as a positive psychological construct which fosters positive psychological states (Clough & Strycharczyk, 2012). Further research is warranted to examine the development of MT on negative psychological constructs.

Algorithms of the Femtoscope: KeV X-Rays Cure Cancer While MeV X-Rays Only Burn the Cells  [PDF]
Edward Jiménez Calderon
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2018.84023
Abstract: The study of cancer with the Femtoscope shows us that the information of the cell nucleus is correlated with the atomic nucleus. Femtoscope and entropy algorithms monitor the time and energy of x-rays that transform cancer cells into healthy cells and vice versa. Curing cancer means recovering the information lost from a cancer cell, leading to a minimum entropy. The efficient treatment of cancer presents resonance frequencies in the production and elimination of cancerous cells, asymmetrically. The cure asymmetry of cancer is due to the support of DNA repair genes, allowing the stability of a race or species, and prioritizing life to death. Using the Femtoscope and Spectroscopy, we experimentally validate the resonance frequencies, which effectively cure the cancer and find the optimal times and doses of treatment. In this way, we minimize collateral effects and unnecessary economic costs. In addition, the phosphorus resonance demonstrates why the low energies of x-rays cure cancer and high x-ray energies only burn cancer cells.
Diffusion of Technology for Organizational Effectiveness: An Exploratory Study of the Procurement Department of a Multi-National Energy Company in Trinidad and Tobago  [PDF]
Prahalad Sooknanan, Jim Leung Chee
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.24014
Abstract: This study investigates the diffusion of technology within a homogenous corporate cultural context according to age and educational level to determine how these variables determine the rate of diffusion. Based on the findings, the conventional communication models seem to apply. Specifically, the study shows that in the particular organizational context, age and education level impact on diffusion of technology. Younger and higher educated individuals seem to have a greater affinity to communication and use new communication technologies in their personal lives as well as professional lives which lend itself to possible early adoption or innovation. The study concludes, in the particular context, while hiring younger and more educated staff can possibly enhance the innovation and adoption process, it is perhaps equally, if not more important, to engage innovators from the wider organization to hasten the diffusion process.
Venter in new venture
Jim Kling
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20020816-01
Abstract: In April, Venter, a TIGR board member, announced the creation of the Center for the Advancement of Genomics, to study the public policy aspects of genomics, and the Institute for Biological Energy Alternatives, to investigate microbial sources of energy. Both projects, which are supported by Venter's Science Foundation, are adding a burden to TIGR's existing sequencing facility, and the new facility will ease that burden, Venter told us in a telephone interview.TIGR's existing facility, which now sequences genomes base by base, will eventually be converted to a genome closure facility that will fill in gaps at the end of projects. "For microbial genomes that (function) is very important, because 90% of most of the genome is genes, while only 1.1% of the human genome is genes. So gaps in humans don't really matter," Venter said.Venter also expects the new center to greatly decrease the cost of sequencing, while increasing speed, by using new high-throughput technology and microvolume procedures that should reduce the cost of reagents. The goal is to get full-genome sequencing down to a cost of $1,000 to $3,000 and to speed sequencing in order to "push the personalized medicine paradigm by sequencing genomes" in the time it takes to have a conversation," he said.The institute should open its doors by the end of the year. Although it does not yet have a title, there is an internal naming competition under way. "Outside submissions are certainly welcome, too," Venter said.
Why patient representation might harm science?
Jim Cassidy
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1802
Abstract: Clinical science in the form of clinical trials is a slow and laborious process. From concept to initiation, even a simple clinical trial can take several years and involves repeated applications for funding, peer review, ethics review and several other processes. The recent adoption of European Union directives on clinical trials has also added to this burden. Principal investigators are usually highly qualified and experienced individuals. They have taken the decision to lead research because they are committed to making a difference to patient care; otherwise, they could live out their working lives in the National Health Service (in the UK context) or in private practice (in most other countries). Although many would contend that they only do it because there is something in it for them – perhaps peer approval, fame, or power – I doubt that those rewards alone are sufficient motivation. This is borne out by the fact that clinical trialists are always in the minority of any professional health care grouping.Consultation of user groups/clients/customers is currently in vogue in many aspects of life. In most cases this is useful to obtain consumer advice about product or service qualities. Although one could draw parallels between these individuals and patients, I would contend that patients are not actually customers. This is because, in my view, becoming a customer is a voluntary process, whereas becoming a patient is as far from voluntary as one could imagine. There is also the implication in consumer feedback that things may change for the better as a result of that feedback; I am not convinced that this is realistic in many aspects of patient care. The customer can also shop elsewhere if they are unhappy with the product; once again, I am unconvinced that that fits with reality when one considers the provision of health care. Most of us are not within reasonable travelling distance of suitable alternatives, especially if one considers therapy for most life-thr
Is breast cancer advocacy distorting the cancer budget to the disadvantage of other tumours?
Jim Cassidy
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1804
Abstract: I think it is fair to say that cancer has (or will) touch all of us in a direct way. Hence, we all have close friends or family members who have the disease. Therapy for cancer is unfortunately often palliative because of late presentation and our lack of curative options for most metastatic common solid cancers, so there is much emotion surrounding cancer; some would suggest that this is out of proportion to the prevalence of the disease. Cardiovascular disease kills more people, but it is somehow less emotive to the general public. People who have a myocardial infarction do not ask 'How long have I got doc?', but cancer patients very often do ask for this kind of information.The most common cancers that we encounter are breast, lung, colorectal and urological. It is clear that the demographics of each of these diseases are distinct. Certain cancers have a predilection for age, sex and social class. Breast cancer is a disease predominantly of middle class females. It is actually commoner with increasing age, but middle-aged women still suffer a high proportion of the burden. Lung cancer almost exclusively occurs in smokers, and it has a higher incidence in lower social classes. Colorectal cancer is slightly more common in well educated people with sedentary occupations. Urological cancer (the bulk of which is prostate cancer) affects older males.Cancer therapy budgets have in the past been (and continue to be) established with little regard for the prevalence of the disease. In fact, the therapy budgets tend to reflect the number and type of options that we have available, and so breast cancer is out in front because we have multiple modalities of therapy (screening, surgery, radiotherapy, hormones and chemotherapy). This is in stark contrast to lung cancer, in which (until very recently) most patients presented late, had multiple smoking-induced comorbidities and could only be offered palliative care. Perhaps as we develop more and better therapies for other cance
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