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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8019 matches for " Jim Golby "
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The Effects of Psychological Skills Training on Mental Toughness and Psychological Well-Being of Student-Athletes  [PDF]
Jim Golby, Phillippa Wood
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76092

This study examined the effects of a psychological skills intervention (PST) designed to enhance the mental toughness and psychological well-being of student-athlete rowers (N = 16). Within this context, PWB was conceptualized by an amalgamation of the following psychological constructs; self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy, positive affect and dispositional optimism. Progress was examined at three times evenly dispersed over the course of the six-month intervention, pre-, mid- and post-intervention. The intervention was solution-focused and informed by Dweck’s (2009) theory of a growth mindset and Goldberg’s (1998) psychological strategies to develop mental toughness. The study design was a 2 (group) × 3 (time) two-way MANOVA with repeated measures on one factor (time). Various measures of mental toughness and positive psychological constructs were utilised. Over the course of the intervention, MT significantly improved, in addition to perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem and positive affect. Positive significant relationships were observed between components of MT and each of the positive measures; which lends support to the conceptualization of MT as a positive psychological construct which fosters positive psychological states (Clough & Strycharczyk, 2012). Further research is warranted to examine the development of MT on negative psychological constructs.

Jim Golby,Jennifer Meggs
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The 2D:4D ratio is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone and has the potential to explain variations in sport performance. To date there has been little research into the association between sporting performance, digit ratio and psychological variables. This study examined the relationship between 2D:4D and mental toughness, optimism, goal orientations, aggression, coping style and their association with sporting achievement. A post facto design was adopted. Participants consisted of an opportunity sample of 122 sports people: male (n =60) and female (n = 62) from a university in North East England. Following informed consent, a Vernier Caliper was used to measure digit ratio hand scans. Participants completed self-reports measures including, the Alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (Golby et al., 2008), Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (Sheard et al., 2009), Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier et al., 1994), Buss-Perry aggression (Buss-Perry, 1992) and 30 item coping style questionnaire (Joseph et al., 1995). MANOVA revealed significant gender differences in 2D:4D with males demonstrating lower ratios (Manning, 2002). The 2D:4D was found to differentiate eleven of the seventeen measured variables, including mental toughness scores (p < 0.001) and varying levels of sporting achievement i.e. international/national, regional and school levels (p< 0.001). Specifically, this difference was significant when comparing the highest (international/national) and lowest (leisure/school) groups. Perhaps there is a threshold for prenatal testosterone's influence upon sporting ability. Further research is necessary to examine the subtle differences between competitors involved in different achievement levels. It is proposed that high prenatal levels of testosterone may contribute to the development of increased mental toughness, optimism, ego/task goal orientations in individuals, and hence aptitude towards sport. Findings lend support for the tentative claim that mental toughness may be partially biologically predetermined. Theoretical and practical implications are considered, along with limitations of the current study
Physiotherapists’ and occupational therapists’ perceptions of the assessment of stroke patients for musculoskeletal rehabilitation in the UK national health service  [PDF]
Christopher Golby, Gillian Lewando Hundt, Vinesh Raja
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.59201

Background and Purpose: This exploratory study focused on the assessment of stroke patients for musculoskeletal rehabilitation in the United Kingdom National Health Service. It was the first phase of research on developing telerehabilitation for the assessment of patients who have had a stroke. The assessment of stroke patients for musculoskeletal rehabilitation is currently performed at the therapist’s discretion using different outcome measures. When looking at the Department of Health’s “National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke”, it is stated that there are a variety of outcome measures, yet no particular one is recommended. It is specified that each rehabilitation sector should select its own methodologies. Aim: The aim of this exploratory study was to understand physiotherapists’ and occupational therapists’ perspectives of the strengths and weaknesses of current rehabilitative assessment of stroke patients in the UK National Health Service. Methods: This study had 2 parts, non-participant observation with 2 therapists and 3 patients, and 10 semi-structured interviews with 5 physiotherapists and 5 occupational therapists to identify current practice, problem areas, and what types of improvements could be made. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic coding. Results: Seven emergent themes were identified portraying how outcome measures are currently not being used in a standardized way within National Health Service hospitals. This means that the feedback provided to patients, therapists and healthcare commissioners is limited. Therapists are currently performing more informal assessments each time a patient begins therapy and concerns are shown with these methods of assessment, including subjec

Identification of essential language areas by combination of fMRI from different tasks using probabilistic independent component analysis  [PDF]
Yanmei Tie, Ralph O. Suarez, Stephen Whalen, Isaiah H. Norton, Alexandra J. Golby
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2008.13026
Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to lateralize and localize lan-guage areas for pre-operative planning pur-poses. To identify the essential language areas from this kind of observation method, we pro-pose an analysis strategy to combine fMRI data from two different tasks using probabilistic in-dependent component analysis (PICA). The assumption is that the independent compo-nents separated by PICA identify the networks activated by both tasks. The results from a study of twelve normal subjects showed that a language-specific component was consistently identified, with the participating networks sepa-rated into different components. Compared with a model-based method, PICA’s ability to capture the neural networks whose temporal activity may deviate from the task timing suggests that PICA may be more appropriate for analyzing language fMRI data with complex event-related paradigms, and may be particularly helpful for patient studies. This proposed strategy has the potential to improve the correlation between fMRI and invasive techniques which can dem-onstrate essential areas and which remain the clinical gold standard.
PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Giorgio Bonmassar,Kyoko Fujimoto,Alexandra J. Golby
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041187
Abstract: Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions.
The Impact of a Drug Safety Warning on Discussions between Doctors and Their Patients; the Case of Rosiglitazone  [PDF]
Jim Nuovo
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.23024
Abstract: The goal of this study was to track the influence of a highly publicized report on discussions between doctors and their patients and prescribing decisions made in response to concerns about potential medication adverse side effects. This was a retrospective analysis of a primary care network’s electronic medical record database. From a diabetes registry of 12, 246 patients, 329 were identified as taking rosiglitazone prior to the June 14, 2007 release of an article in the New England Journal of Medicine; the article suggesting an increased risk of myocardial events. The entire content of all office visits, telephone messages, and medication lists for each patient were reviewed over a 2-year period subsequent to the article’s publication. Doctor/patient discussions regarding concerns for rosiglitazone were catalogued including the physician’s treatment recommendations. There were documented discussions on rosiglitazone’s potential adverse side effects for 64 patients; 19.5 percent of this population. All of the discussions occurred between June 15 and October 30, 2007. Of the entire group, 59.3 percent (N = 195) remained on rosiglitazone. For those advised to continue rosiglitazone, the provider indicated that he/she wanted more data before determining if the drug was not safe or discounted the validity of the safety concerns. For those advised to discontinue rosiglitazone, 112 (83.6 percent) were placed on pioglitazone. An article suggesting potential adverse effects of rosiglitazone resulted in a documented discussion in 19.5 percent of patients on this medication. These findings suggest an awareness of this publication by patients, presumably derived from media reports. However, an awareness of this concern did not result in a substantial change in practice.The majority of patients remained on rosiglitazone. The content of these discussions suggest that most physicians’ recommended waiting for more published data before considering a change. While many factors influence physician’s prescribing behavior, this study demonstrates how a highly publicized report influences the doctor/ patient dialogue.
Organic Wastes to Increase CO2 Absorption  [PDF]
Manuel Jiménez Aguilar
International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy (IJCCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcce.2014.34005
Abstract: The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various organic wastes on the ability of urine in absorbing CO2. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O), poultry litter (P) or meat bone meal (M) was used on the absorption of CO2 from a gas bottle. The absorption capacity (1.35 - 2.85 gCO2/gNH4) was bigger than other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The range of CO2 absorption was significantly bigger for the organic mixtures P and PM with urine (9.1 - 11.8) g/L than urine alone 6.5 g/L. These organic wastes could be used to increase CO2 absorption in urine and reduce gas emissions.
Algorithms of the Femtoscope: KeV X-Rays Cure Cancer While MeV X-Rays Only Burn the Cells  [PDF]
Edward Jiménez Calderon
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2018.84023
Abstract: The study of cancer with the Femtoscope shows us that the information of the cell nucleus is correlated with the atomic nucleus. Femtoscope and entropy algorithms monitor the time and energy of x-rays that transform cancer cells into healthy cells and vice versa. Curing cancer means recovering the information lost from a cancer cell, leading to a minimum entropy. The efficient treatment of cancer presents resonance frequencies in the production and elimination of cancerous cells, asymmetrically. The cure asymmetry of cancer is due to the support of DNA repair genes, allowing the stability of a race or species, and prioritizing life to death. Using the Femtoscope and Spectroscopy, we experimentally validate the resonance frequencies, which effectively cure the cancer and find the optimal times and doses of treatment. In this way, we minimize collateral effects and unnecessary economic costs. In addition, the phosphorus resonance demonstrates why the low energies of x-rays cure cancer and high x-ray energies only burn cancer cells.
GBM Volumetry using the 3D Slicer Medical Image Computing Platform
Jan Egger,Tina Kapur,Andriy Fedorov,Steve Pieper,James V. Miller,Harini Veeraraghavan,Bernd Freisleben,Alexandra Golby,Christopher Nimsky,Ron Kikinis
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/srep01364
Abstract: Volumetric change in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over time is a critical factor in treatment decisions. Typically, the tumor volume is computed on a slice-by-slice basis using MRI scans obtained at regular intervals. (3D)Slicer - a free platform for biomedical research - provides an alternative to this manual slice-by-slice segmentation process, which is significantly faster and requires less user interaction. In this study, 4 physicians segmented GBMs in 10 patients, once using the competitive region-growing based GrowCut segmentation module of Slicer, and once purely by drawing boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis. Furthermore, we provide a variability analysis for three physicians for 12 GBMs. The time required for GrowCut segmentation was on an average 61% of the time required for a pure manual segmentation. A comparison of Slicer-based segmentation with manual slice-by-slice segmentation resulted in a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 88.43 +/- 5.23% and a Hausdorff Distance of 2.32 +/- 5.23 mm.
Diffusion of Technology for Organizational Effectiveness: An Exploratory Study of the Procurement Department of a Multi-National Energy Company in Trinidad and Tobago  [PDF]
Prahalad Sooknanan, Jim Leung Chee
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.24014
Abstract: This study investigates the diffusion of technology within a homogenous corporate cultural context according to age and educational level to determine how these variables determine the rate of diffusion. Based on the findings, the conventional communication models seem to apply. Specifically, the study shows that in the particular organizational context, age and education level impact on diffusion of technology. Younger and higher educated individuals seem to have a greater affinity to communication and use new communication technologies in their personal lives as well as professional lives which lend itself to possible early adoption or innovation. The study concludes, in the particular context, while hiring younger and more educated staff can possibly enhance the innovation and adoption process, it is perhaps equally, if not more important, to engage innovators from the wider organization to hasten the diffusion process.
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