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Comparative Study of The Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of aTelfairia occidentalis (Ugu) Leaves And Silymarin on Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Rats
Jibrin Danladi,Kafeelat Bolajoko Abayomi,Mairiga. A.A.,Ahmadu Usman Dahiru
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Telfairia occidentalis is use as vegetable in number of countries. Extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves have been reported to have medicinal use in traditional medicine system, in most often an hepatoprotectant agent. In this study, the effect of Telfairia occidentalis leaves and Silymarin on paracetamol induced liver damage was investigated in rats. A total number of 20 young adult wistar rats consisting of both sex and weighing between 150- 350 g were use for the study. The animals were grouped in to (5) groups of four rats in each. Group 1, served as normal control and receive distilled water orally for 7 days. Group 2 receive 2000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol orally for 3 days while Group 3 animals were administered 500 mg/kg body weight of plant extract orally for 7 days. Group 4 animals received 2000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol orally for 3 days and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract orally for 7 days while Group 5 received 2000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol orally for 3 days and Silymarin orally for 7 days respectively. At the end of the experiment the animals showed increased in body weight which is highly significant in group 3 and showed significant decreased in organ weight (liver) of group 2 animals. Biochemical parameter shows that, there is significant decrease in the level of liver enzymes (ALT) in group 2 when compared to other groups, the level of AST showed significant decreased in group 5, 4 and 2 when compared to group 1 and 3 and the level of ALP showed a significant increased in group 2 when compared to other groups and significant decreased in group 4. The histological features of the liver showed central vein congestion with eroded endothelium and haemolised blood vessels, pkynotic nucleic, sinusoidal dilatatoin and fatty infiltration in group 2, normal liver appeared in group 3, 4 and 5. This study showed that, ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leave possess hepatoprotective property at a dose (500 mg/kg).
A Study of Variation in Physiognomic Characteristics of Guinea Savanna Vegetation
Abdullahi Jibrin
Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR) , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v3n2p52
Abstract: Variation in structural composition of Guinea savannah vegetation was investigated in Kpashimi forest reserve, Niger State, Nigeria. Field work inventory was conducted to determine the current status of the vegetation physiognomic characteristics of the six physiographic units in the study area; comprising of Riparian Forest, Savannah Woodland, Degraded forest Scrubland, Grassland, and Bare surface. Parameters measured include tree density, trunk diameter, basal area, tree density, tree species diversity, tree height, crown cover, shrub cover, and grass cover. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the variation in structural characteristics of the vegetation of the study area. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences amongst virtually all the parameters among the physiographic units. In general, the landscape of the forest reserve has been influenced significantly by anthropogenic disturbance and the resulting landscape vegetation cover is a mixture of natural and human managed mosaics that vary in shape, size, structure and arrangement. Thus, drastic measures need to be taken so as to reverse the trend and to mitigate the far reaching ecological consequences of vegetation degradation as highlighted in this study. Access to UNFCC carbon credit is hereby recommended for the management of the study area.
An Interior Point Method for Solving Semidefinite Programs Using Cutting Planes and Weighted Analytic Centers
John Machacek,Shafiu Jibrin
Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/946893
Abstract: We investigate solving semidefinite programs (SDPs) with an interior point method called SDP-CUT, which utilizes weighted analytic centers and cutting plane constraints. SDP-CUT iteratively refines the feasible region to achieve the optimal solution. The algorithm uses Newton’s method to compute the weighted analytic center. We investigate different stepsize determining techniques. We found that using Newton's method with exact line search is generally the best implementation of the algorithm. We have also compared our algorithm to the SDPT3 method and found that SDP-CUT initially gets into the neighborhood of the optimal solution in less iterations on all our test problems. SDP-CUT also took less iterations to reach optimality on many of the problems. However, SDPT3 required less iterations on most of the test problems and less time on all the problems. Some theoretical properties of the convergence of SDP-CUT are also discussed.
Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity
AR Sanda,Jibrin Dibal
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082
Abstract: In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 235-240
Geological and Geotechnical Assessment of Selected Gully Sites in Wuro Bayare Area NE Nigeria
Gabriel Ike Obiefuna,Jibrin Adamu
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: An assessment of the geological and geotechnical parameters as causative agents in the formation of gullies in Wuro Bayare area of northeastern Nigeria is presented. Field geological study of the study area revealed that the area is underlain by basement rocks. The soils in the area are product of in-situ weathering of the underlying basement rocks. The results of sieve analysis shows that the soils at the gully sites have sorting values ranging between 0.42 and 2.3, coefficient of uniformity values ranging between 0.02 and 200, coefficient of curvature values ranging between 0.0125 and 0.23 and also the constanthydraulic values (Kvalues) is use to know the bottom erosion ranges. These indicate that the soils are poorly to well-sorted in places. The plasticity indices values ranges between 9.9 and 5.5 with a mean value of about 20 indicates soils of moderate to highly plasticity, slight dry strength and easily friable. Values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD) ranging between 2.15 and1.83 g/cm3 at Optimum Moisture Contents (OMC) of between 12.4 and 6.4% reveals that the soils were generally lose. From the geotechnical analysis results, commendations for erosions control such as; construction of drainages, grouting concrete rip-raps and afforestation were suggested.
Agrobacterium-induced hypersensitive necrotic reaction in plant cells: a resistance response against Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
Danladi Dada Kuta, Leena Tripathi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: High necrosis and poor survival rate of target plant tissues are some of the major factors that affect the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer into plant cells. These factors may be the result of, or linked to, hypersensitive defense reaction in plants to Agrobacterium infection, which may involve the recognition of specific signals from the Agrobacterium that triggers the burst of reactive oxygen species at the infection site. Evidences of Agrobacterium-induced necrosis in target plant tissues and its link to reactive oxygen species are presented. Application of antioxidants, addition of acetosyringone and optimization of pre-culture conditions suppress the Agrobacterium-induced hypersensitive necrotic response in target plant tissues, thereby enhancing stable transformation.
Effects Of Two Levels Of Caffeine Doses On Endurance Performance Of Normal Young Black African Subjects
Sikiru Lamina,Danladi Ibrahim Musa
Doping Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two levels of caffeine doses (5 &10 mg/kg) on endurance exercise performance of normal young male African adults.Method: Twenty normal young male adults volunteers, participated. A repeated measures three randomized crossover (counter balanced) double blind design was used in data collection. Subjects engaged in 20 meter shuttle run test (20 MST) one hour Post caffeine(5, & 10 mg/kg) and placebo doses ingestion.Exercise Performance indices (VO2 max, run time & number of exercise laps) were recorded. Result: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the level of significant difference between caffeine doses and placebo dose in VO2 max, run time and number of exercise laps. The result showed no significant effect of the two (5 & 10mg/kg) doses of caffeine over placebo dose in all exercise performance indices investigated at p<0.05.Conclusion: It was concluded that caffeine doses up to 10 mg/kg seems not have any ergogenic effect on max aerobic power of normal young black African male Adults.
Constraint Consensus Methods for Finding Interior Feasible Points in Second-Order Cones
Anna Weigandt,Kaitlyn Tuthill,Shafiu Jibrin
Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/307209
Abstract: Optimization problems with second-order cone constraints (SOCs) can be solved efficiently by interior point methods. In order for some of these methods to get started or to converge faster, it is important to have an initial feasible point or near-feasible point. In this paper, we study and apply Chinneck's Original constraint consensus method and DBmax constraint consensus method to find near-feasible points for systems of SOCs. We also develop and implement a new backtracking-like line search technique on these methods that attempts to increase the length of the consensus vector, at each iteration, with the goal of finding interior feasible points. Our numerical results indicate that the new methods are effective in finding interior feasible points for SOCs. 1. Introduction We consider a system of second-order cone inequalities as follows: where ?? is an matrix, is a vector in , is a vector in , and is a scalar. The norm is the standard Euclidean norm. We assume the interior of the feasible region is nonempty. Second-order cones (SOCs) are important to study because there exist many optimization problems where the constraints can be written in this form. For instance, SOCs can be used to easily represent problems dealing with norms, hyperbolic constraints, and robust linear programming. There are also a huge number of real world applications in areas such as antenna array weight design, grasping force optimization, and portfolio optimization (see [1] for more information on these and other applications). Furthermore, there exist efficient interior point methods for solving optimization problems with SOC constraints, such as the primal-dual interior-point method. Because of these applications and the success of interior point methods when applied to SOCs, there exists a need to be able to efficiently find a near-feasible or feasible point for a system of SOCs [1–4]. One approach to feasibility is given in [5]. In this paper, we will describe two of Chinneck's constraint consensus algorithms and apply them to SOCs to find near-feasible points. These are the Original constraint consensus method and DBmax constraint consensus method. One could of course add a small value to the final consensus vector of these methods to make it enter the interior of the feasible region [6]. However, this would not work if the final consensus vector is far away from the boundary. We propose a different approach, one which increases the step size of the consensus vector at each iteration using a backtracking technique. The goal is to find interior feasible points and to
Reliability-Based Optimum Design of Double Angle Web Cleats in Steel Portal Frames Using Genetic Algorithms
Salisu Dahiru,Jibrin Mohammed Kaura,Idris Abubakar
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jeasci.2012.60.66
Abstract: It is no longer sufficient to design a system that perform the required task satisfactorily. It is essential to design the best system that is efficient, versatile, unique and cost-effective system. This study presents a developed computer program in Fortran 90 (Opticon 2011) for the optimum design of double angle web cleats in steel portal frames using evolutionary algorithms. The BS 5950 part 1, design criteria was adopted. The optimum design uses reliability technique and the uncertainties associated with the basic design variables were fully accommodated. The optimum design displayed a significant cost saving as compared with the JSC design values.
Chicken guinea fowl hybrid produced under natural mating
DJ Kalla, FB Danladi, UD Dass
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2008,
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