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Geological and Geotechnical Assessment of Selected Gully Sites in Wuro Bayare Area NE Nigeria
Gabriel Ike Obiefuna,Jibrin Adamu
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: An assessment of the geological and geotechnical parameters as causative agents in the formation of gullies in Wuro Bayare area of northeastern Nigeria is presented. Field geological study of the study area revealed that the area is underlain by basement rocks. The soils in the area are product of in-situ weathering of the underlying basement rocks. The results of sieve analysis shows that the soils at the gully sites have sorting values ranging between 0.42 and 2.3, coefficient of uniformity values ranging between 0.02 and 200, coefficient of curvature values ranging between 0.0125 and 0.23 and also the constanthydraulic values (Kvalues) is use to know the bottom erosion ranges. These indicate that the soils are poorly to well-sorted in places. The plasticity indices values ranges between 9.9 and 5.5 with a mean value of about 20 indicates soils of moderate to highly plasticity, slight dry strength and easily friable. Values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD) ranging between 2.15 and1.83 g/cm3 at Optimum Moisture Contents (OMC) of between 12.4 and 6.4% reveals that the soils were generally lose. From the geotechnical analysis results, commendations for erosions control such as; construction of drainages, grouting concrete rip-raps and afforestation were suggested.
Comparative performance of HbA1c 6.5% for FPG ≥ 7.0 vs 2hr PG≥ 11.1 criteria for diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes
AN Adamu
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: International expert committee on the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in 2009 and World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 has advocated the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine and compare the relationship between the new cut off value of HbA1c with established criteria. Methods: Thirty-one hypertensive subjects attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital were recruited for HbA1c and standard oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and two-hour plasma glucose (2hrpp) value of e”126mg/dl and >200mg/dl were used as standard respectively for diagnosis of diabetes. The HbA1c of e”6.5% was used to diagnose diabetes. The performance and correlation of HbA1c with FPG and 2hrpp were calculated and results were compared. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 53.97±6.27years. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), efficiency and correlation of FPG is 50%, 68%, 27%, 85%, 64% and 0.5 respectively while the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, efficiency and correlation of 2hrpp is 73.91%, 62.5%,85%, 41.66%, 70.97% and 0.73% respectively. There was a significant difference between FPG and 2hrpp interms of sensitivity, PPV and NPV. Conclusion: The results of HbA1c with 2hrpp has better correlation, sensitivity, and PPV compared to HbA1c with FPG.
A Study of Variation in Physiognomic Characteristics of Guinea Savanna Vegetation
Abdullahi Jibrin
Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR) , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v3n2p52
Abstract: Variation in structural composition of Guinea savannah vegetation was investigated in Kpashimi forest reserve, Niger State, Nigeria. Field work inventory was conducted to determine the current status of the vegetation physiognomic characteristics of the six physiographic units in the study area; comprising of Riparian Forest, Savannah Woodland, Degraded forest Scrubland, Grassland, and Bare surface. Parameters measured include tree density, trunk diameter, basal area, tree density, tree species diversity, tree height, crown cover, shrub cover, and grass cover. The aim of the study is to determine and compare the variation in structural characteristics of the vegetation of the study area. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences amongst virtually all the parameters among the physiographic units. In general, the landscape of the forest reserve has been influenced significantly by anthropogenic disturbance and the resulting landscape vegetation cover is a mixture of natural and human managed mosaics that vary in shape, size, structure and arrangement. Thus, drastic measures need to be taken so as to reverse the trend and to mitigate the far reaching ecological consequences of vegetation degradation as highlighted in this study. Access to UNFCC carbon credit is hereby recommended for the management of the study area.
An Interior Point Method for Solving Semidefinite Programs Using Cutting Planes and Weighted Analytic Centers
John Machacek,Shafiu Jibrin
Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/946893
Abstract: We investigate solving semidefinite programs (SDPs) with an interior point method called SDP-CUT, which utilizes weighted analytic centers and cutting plane constraints. SDP-CUT iteratively refines the feasible region to achieve the optimal solution. The algorithm uses Newton’s method to compute the weighted analytic center. We investigate different stepsize determining techniques. We found that using Newton's method with exact line search is generally the best implementation of the algorithm. We have also compared our algorithm to the SDPT3 method and found that SDP-CUT initially gets into the neighborhood of the optimal solution in less iterations on all our test problems. SDP-CUT also took less iterations to reach optimality on many of the problems. However, SDPT3 required less iterations on most of the test problems and less time on all the problems. Some theoretical properties of the convergence of SDP-CUT are also discussed.
Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity
AR Sanda,Jibrin Dibal
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082
Abstract: In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 235-240
Modeling the Transmission Dynamics of the Monkeypox Virus Infection with Treatment and Vaccination Interventions  [PDF]
Sulaiman Usman, Ibrahim Isa Adamu
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.512191
Abstract: Presently, an ongoing outbreak of the monkeypox virus infection that began in Bayelsa State of Nigeria has now spread to other parts of the country including mostly States in the South-South with the Nigerian Ministry of Health confirming 4 samples out of the 43 sent for testing at WHO Regional Laboratory in Dakar, Senegal. This reminds us that apart from the eradicated smallpox, there are other poxviruses that pose potential threat to people in West and Central Africa. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of the transmission of monkeypox virus infection with control strategies of combined vaccine and treatment interventions. Using standard approaches, we established two equilibria for the model namely: disease-free and endemic. The disease-free equilibrium was proved to be both locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1 using the next-generation matrix and the comparison theorem. While the endemic equilibrium point existed only when R0 > 1, was proved to be locally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1 using the linearization plus row-reduction method. The basic reproduction numbers for the humans and the non-human primates of the model are computed using parameter values to be R0,h = 9.1304 x 10-6 and R0,n = 3.375 x 10-3 respectively. Numerical simulations carried out on the model revealed that the infectious individuals in the human and non-human primates’ populations will die out in the course of the proposed interventions in this paper during the time of the study. Sensitivity analysis carried out on the model parameters shows that the basic reproduction numbers of the model which served as a threshold for measuring new infections in the host populations decrease with increase in the control parameters of vaccination and treatment.
Drugs Supply and Laboratory Services in Dots System of Kaduna State: A Health Care Worker Perspective  [PDF]
Shehu Usman Adamu, D. McGill
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61003
Abstract: A study was conducted in Kaduna State Nigeria to ascertain the impact of Drug Supply and laboratory services towards effective functioning of DOTS system. Six DOTS providing centres were identified for the study and in each centre, three respondents were selected based on their profession, the Medical Officer, the Pharmacist and the Laboratory Technician totaling 18. The officers were interviewed for the purpose of the research. Semi structured Interviews were conducted in this research as a means of obtaining Health workers perspective. The Interview which was conducted in their respective work station was open ended and all questions are same for all respondents. During the course of the study, all respondents agreed that the sources of drugs supply to their respective centres was the Kaduna State Tuberculosis and leprosy control Program office from the state capital and that drugs are been supplied quarterly and are adequate with slight interruption due to Logistic while for Laboratory services the respondents were of the view that there is the need to improve on it as there are cases of shortage of reagents and erratic supply of Electricity for effective Laboratory functioning.
An Appraisal of the Crisis in Darfur in Western Sudan and the Prospect for a Lasting Peace
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: The Darfur crisis in western Sudan started in February 2003. It has to date claimed the lives of an estimated number of 200,000 people and another 2.5 million have been displaced and are now living in make shift refugee camps in Chad and neighbouring countries. All attempts to broker peace among the major warring factions had proved abortive and there is little or no hope that the displaced people would one day return to their villages. The killings, raping, suffering and starvation had continued despite the presence of the African Union troops which numbered about 7000 and deployed since 2004. A lot of propaganda, misinformation, fabrications and distortions have gone across to the public in trying to explain the causes and attendant consequence of the said conflict. These have clearly stood on the way to a real understanding of the genesis of the crisis for a lasting peace to be obtained and peace building to be accelerated, and end this bloodshed and suffering that had been the bane of the region for the past five years. This paper is an appraisal of the various views and opinions that had been put forward by different interest groups on the causes of the crisis, its impact and the way forward towards the attainment of peace. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 315-333
The Legend of Queen Sheba, the Solomonic Dynasty and Ethiopian History: An Analysis
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: The legend of Queen Sheba is undoubtedly one of the oldest legends, producing the oldest monarchy in Africa comparable, perhaps, only to the imperial dynasty in Japan or the Seifuwa dynasty in the Lake Chad basin. It is clearly one of the most accepted, believed, pervasive and resonant among all the legends of origin in Africa, today. The legend is still widely believed by the majority of Ethiopians and is reflected in their day to day daily lives. The existence of the Orthodox Tewahido church and other religious ceremonies, the presence of Beta Israel, the names of people like Makeda or Sheba and organizations such as the Sheba Miles are all testimonies to the legend living in the present Ethiopian communities. It purported to explain how the Ethiopian ruling dynasty ‘the Solomonic dynasty’ was descended from Solomon and through him from Abraham and the early patriarchs. The dynasty followed a succession of rulers from Yekunno- Amlak in circa 1270AD to the last emperor in the person of Haile- Selassie 1 who was deposed in 1974. This has lasted for a period close to a thousand years and making the dynasty to be one of the longest and oldest monarchies anywhere in the world. This paper is intended to look more closely at some of the claims made by this legend and its implication on the Ethiopian peoples, their heritage and identity. It is strongly argued that the legend is only legendary and a historical travesty. It cannot be proven historically. The paper concluded by examining the political as well as the socio-economic significance of the legend in contemporary discours.
The Somalian Crisis: A Legacy of Colonialism?
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: The Somalian crisis seemed to have defied all solutions since its inception in1991. The country had become increasingly ungovernable and the condition had been described as the worst humanitarian crisis in the world. Somalia is considered by many to be a ‘failed state’ being the only state in the world with a vacant seat at the United Nations. It is not that it has been abolished but that it has entered what some analysts have called an undetermined ‘Gray Zone’. All these have been as a result of the crisis that engulfed the country since the fall of the regime of Siyyad Barre almost two decades ago and further complicated by the Ethiopian /American invasion of 2006. This paper examines the roots of the crisis, the attempts made at reconciliation as well as the role of international bodies in averting or escalating the crisis. The paper also looks at the possibility of finding a lasting peace in the country. It is argued that the Somalian crisis should be largely seen as a legacy of colonialism in the country as well as the misdeeds of some people like Siyyad Barre. The paper shows that the only way to peace is to allow the Somalians to determine the manner in which they want to be ruled.
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