Abstract:
The energy spectrum of q-deformed Schr\"odinger equation is demonstrated. This spectrum includes an exponential factor with new quantum numbers--the $q$-exciting number and the scaling index. The pattern of quark and lepton masses is qualitatively explained by such a q-deformed spectrum in a composite model.

Abstract:
In noncommutative space to maintain Bose-Einstein statistics for identical particles at the non-perturbation level described by deformed annihilation-creation operators when the state vector space of identical bosons is constructed by generalizing one-particle quantum mechanics it is explored that the consistent ansatz of commutation relations of phase space variables should simultaneously include space-space noncommutativity and momentum-momentum noncommutativity, and a new type of boson commutation relations at the deformed level is obtained. Consistent perturbation expansions of deformed annihilation-creation operators are obtained. The influence of the new boson commutation relations on dynamics is discussed. The non-perturbation and perturbation property of the orbital angular momentum of two-dimensional system are investigated. Its spectrum possesses fractional eigen values and fractional intervals.

Abstract:
The possibility of testing spatial noncommutativity via Rydberg atoms is explored. An atomic dipole of a cold Rydberg atom is arranged in appropriate electric and magnetic field, so that the motion of the dipole is constrained to be planar and rotationally symmetric. Spatial noncommutativity leads to that the canonical angular momentum possesses fractional values. In the limit of vanishing kinetic energy, the dominate value of the lowest canonical angular momentum takes $\hbar/2$. Furthermore, in the limit of eliminating magnetic field, the dominate value of the lowest canonical angular momentum changes from $\hbar/2$ to $\hbar/4$. This result is a clear signal of spatial noncommutativity. An experimental verification of this prediction is suggested.

Abstract:
In two-dimensional noncommutive space for the case of both position - position and momentum - momentum noncommuting, a constraint between noncommutative parameters is investigated. The related topic of guaranteeing Bose - Einstein statistics in noncommutive space in the general case are elucidated: Bose - Einstein statistics is guaranteed by the deformed Heisenberg - Weyl algebra itself, independent of dynamics. A special character of a dynamical system is represented by a constraint between noncommutative parameters. The general feature of the constraint for any system is a direct proportionality between noncommutative parameters with a proportional coefficient depending on characteristic parameters of the system under study. The constraint for a harmonic oscillator is illustrated.

Abstract:
The possibility of quantum transmission of information via the induced fractional angular momentum by the Aharonov - Bohm vector potential is revealed. Its special advantage is that it is noiseless: Stray magnetic fields of environments influence the energy spectrum of the ion, but cannot contribute the fractional angular momentum to cause noise.

Abstract:
An induced fractional zero-point angular momentum of charged particles by the Bohm-Aharonov (B-A) vector potential is realized via a modified combined trap. It explores a "spectator" mechanism in this type of quantum effects: In the limit of the kinetic energy approaching one of its eigenvalues the B-A vector potential alone cannot induce a fractional zero-point angular momentum at quantum mechanical level in the B-A magnetic field-free region; But when there is a "spectator" magnetic field the B-A vector potential induces a fractional zero-point angular momentum. The "spectator" does not contribute to such a fractional angular momentum, but plays essential role in guaranteeing non-trivial dynamics at quantum mechanical level in the required limit. This "spectator" mechanism is significant in investigating the B-A effects and related topics in both aspects of theory and experiment.

Abstract:
Semiunitary transformation is applied to discuss supersymmetrization of cold Rydberg atoms. In the limit of vanishing kinetic energy the lowest angular momentum of the supersymmetric cold Rydberg atom is $3\hbar/2$. A possible experimental verification is suggested.

Abstract:
The non-perturbation and perturbation structures of the q-deformed probability currents are studied. According to two ways of realizing the q-deformed Heisenberg algebra by the undeformed operators, the perturbation structures of two q-deformed probability currents are explored in detail. Locally the structures of two perturbation q-deformed probability currents are different, one is explicitly potential dependent; the other is not. But their total contributions to the whole space are the same.

Abstract:
The possibility of testing spatial noncommutativity via a Penning trap is explored. The case of both space-space and momentum-momentum noncommuting is considered. Spatial noncommutativity leads to the spectrum of the orbital angular momentum of a Penning trap possessing fractional values, and in the limits of vanishing kinetic energy and subsequent vanishing magnetic field, this system has non-trivial dynamics. The dominant value of the lowest orbital angular momentum is $\hbar/4$, which is a clear signal of spatial noncommutativity. An experimental verification of this prediction by a Stern-Gerlach-type experiment is suggested.

Abstract:
An extensively tacit understandings of equivalency between the deformed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in noncommutative space and the undeformed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in commutative space is elucidated. Equivalency conditions between two algebras are clarified. It is explored that the deformed algebra related to the undeformed one by a non-orthogonal similarity transformation. Furthermore, non-existence of a unitary similarity transformation which transforms the deformed algebra to the undeformed one is demonstrated. The un-equivalency theorem between the deformed and the undeformed algebras is fully proved. Elucidation of this un-equivalency theorem has basic meaning both in theory and practice.