Abstract:
Objective: To observe whether Naomai Yihao (NM) Capsule, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for regulating the "sea of blood in brain", and bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation could improve angiogenesis in focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Methods: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. The rats were divided into untreated group, NM group, BMSC group and combination of NM and BMSC group (combined treatment group). Another 8 normal rats were selected as sham-operated group. After 3-, 7- and 14-day reperfusion, behavioral rating scale (BRS) of the rats and histopathology of the cerebral tissue were evaluated. Expression of CD31 in the brain tissue was also measured by immunohistochemical method.Results: Compared with the untreated group, BRSs of the NM group, BMSC group and combined treatment group were decreased significantly (P=0.000), but there was no interacting effect between NM and BMSC transplantation. Compared with the untreated group, the numbers of CD31 positive cells in NM group, BMSC group and combined treatment group were increased significantly (P=0.000), and there were interacting effects among NM, BMSC transplantation, and the observation time (P<0.01). After 14-day reperfusion, combination of NM and BMSC transplantation could largely increase the number of CD31 positive cells.Conclusion: NM is able to promote the angiogenesis and neurological impairment improvement in focal cerebral ischemia of rats which are administered with BMSC transplantation, and the effect is reinforced with the extension of treatment time.

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a new approximation scheme based on the extragradient method and viscosity method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping and the set of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mapping. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces as follows: Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let A be a monotone and k-Lipschitz continuous mapping of C into H. Let S be a nonexpansive mapping of C into H such that , where and , respectively, denote the set of fixed point of S and the solution set of a variational inequality. Let f be a contraction of H into itself and and be sequences generated by for every n=1,2,…, where and are sequences of numbers satisfying and and . Then, and converge strongly to The results in this paper improve some well-known results in the literature.

Abstract:
A new and interesting model of system of generalized set-valued equilibrium problems which generalizes and unifies the system of set-valued equilibrium problems, the system of generalized implicit vector variational inequalities, the system of generalized vector and vector-like variational inequalities in [1], the system of generalized vector variational inequalities in [2], the system of vector equilibrium problems and the system of vector variational inequalities in [3], the system of scalar variational inequalities in [4,5,9,15,23,28], the system of Ky-Fan variational inequalities in [16] as well as variety of the equilibrium problems in literatures will be introduced, and several existence results of a solution for the system of generalized set-valued equilibrium problems will be shown.

Abstract:
We introduce new and interesting model of system of generalized set-valued equilibrium problems which generalizes and unifies the system of set-valued equilibrium problems, the system of generalized implicit vector variational inequalities, the system of generalized vector and vector-like variational inequalities introduced by Ansari et al. (2002), the system of generalized vector variational inequalities presented by Allevi et al. (2001), the system of vector equilibrium problems and the system of vector variational inequalities given by Ansari et al. (2000), the system of scalar variational inequalities presented by Ansari Yao (1999, 2000), Bianchi (1993), Cohen and Caplis (1988), Konnov (2001), and Pang (1985), the system of Ky-Fan variational inequalities proposed bt Deguire et al. (1999) as well as a variety of equilibrium problems in the literature. Several existence results of a solution for the system of generalized set-valued equilibrium problems will be shown.

Abstract:
In this article, we introduce some new iterative schemes based on the extragradient method (and the hybrid method) for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem, and the set of fixed points of a family of infinitely nonexpansive mappings and the set of solutions of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz-continuous mapping in Hilbert spaces. We obtain some strong convergence theorems and weak convergence theorems. The results in this article generalize, improve, and unify some well-known convergence theorems in the literature.

Abstract:
We briefly reviewed some recent progress on the studies of supernova remnants (SNRs), including the radio SNRs (the structure, polarization, spectrum etc.), observational characteristics of X-ray emission, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), association properties between SNR and PSR, interaction of SNR and interstellar medium (ISM), cosmos ray and the SNRs in external galaxies, etc.. Correspondingly to the continue improvement of space and spectrum resolution of the on-ground and in-space astronomical equipments at wavelengthes as radio, optical, X-ray and so on, we know about SNRs more and deeper.

Abstract:
A bioassay-directed phytochemical study was carried out to investigate potential allelochemicals of the invasive plant Merremia umbellata subsp. orientalis (Hall. f.). Eight phenolic compounds, including a salicylic acid (SA)-derived new natural product, SA 2-O-β-D-(3',6'-dicaffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (1), and seven known ones 2-8 were isolated and identified from two bioactive sub-fractions of the acetone extract of this plant. The structure of new compound 1 was established by spectral and chemical methods. The potential allelopathic effects of these compounds at 0.5 and 1.0 mM concentrations on the germination of Arabidopsis seeds were tested. Results showed that 2 remarkably inhibited seed germination at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Compound 3 only moderately inhibited seed germination at 0.5 mM, but displayed strong inhibitory bioactivity at 1.0 mM concentration. Compounds 4 and 5 showed only slight inhibitory bioactivity at 1.0 mM, while the other compounds showed no obvious inhibitory effects.

Abstract:
Two new phytoecdysteroids, (25S)-20,22-O-(R-ethylidene)inokosterone (1) and 20,22-O-(R-3-methoxycarbonyl)propylidene-20-hydroxyecdysone (2), together with six known phytoecdysteroids 3–8 were isolated from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. The new structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies and chemical evidences. The absolute configuration at C-25 in the structure of known compound 3 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic means.

Abstract:
The different components of crude mycelium of the predominant endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of Artemisa annua have been extracted by the methods of acid hydrolysate. We compared the effect of the isolated components on artemisin biosynthesis in hairy root cultures. Therefore, the oligosaccharide elicitor from C. gloeosporioides has been partially purified by column chromatography of Sephadex G25. The isolated oligosaccharide B II (elicitor, MW < 2500) has been revealed to promote the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua hairy root cultures. When hairy roots of 23-day old cultures (later growth phase) were exposed to the elicitor at 0.4 mg/mL for 4 days, the maximum production of artemisinin reached to 13.51 mg/L, a 51.63% increase over the control. This is the first report on the stimulation of artemisinin production in hairy roots by the oligosaccharide elicitor from an endophytic fungus of A. annua.