Abstract:
A new scheme for overcoming losses with incoherent optical gain in a quantum-coherent left-handed atomic vapor is suggested. In order to obtain low-loss, lossless or active left-handed media (LHM), a pump field, which aims at realizing population inversion of atomic levels, is introduced into a four-level atomic system. Both analytical and numerical results are given to illustrate that such an atomic vapor can exhibit intriguing electric and magnetic responses required for achieving simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability (and hence a gain-assisted quantum-coherent negative refractive index would emerge). The quantum-coherent left-handed atomic vapor presented here could have four fascinating characteristics: i) three-dimensionally isotropic negative refractive index, ii) doublenegative atomic medium at visible and infrared wavelengths, iii) high-gain optical amplification, and iv) tunable negative refractive index based on quantum coherent control. Such a three-dimensionally isotropic gain medium with negative refractive index at visible and infrared frequencies would have a potential application in design of new quantum optical and photonic devices, including superlenses for perfect imaging and subwavelength focusing.

Abstract:
A physically interesting {\it effective rest mass} of photons in electromagnetic media, which is independent of wave frequency $\omega$, is defined in the present paper. It is verified that this frequency-independent effective rest mass of photons can be easily read off from the optical refractive index squared $n^{2}(\omega) $ of commonly-seen electromagnetic media. As an illustrative example, we extract the frequency-independent effective rest mass of photons from $n^{2}(\omega) $ in the {\it two time derivative Lorentz material} (2TDLM) model. The connection between effective rest mass and electromagnetic parameters of electric permittivity ($\epsilon $) and magnetic permeability ($\mu $) in left-handed media is also briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The propagation of monomode photons inside a coiled optical fibre was regarded as a time-dependent quantum evolution process, which gives rise to a geometric phase. It is well known that the investigation of non-adiabatic geometric phases ought to be performed only in the Schr\"{o}dinger picture. So, the projections of photon spin operators onto the fixed frame of reference is discussed in this paper. In addition, we also treat the non-normal-order spin operators and consider the potential effects (e.g., quantum-vacuum geometric phases) of quantum fluctuation fields arising in a curved optical fibre. The quantum-vacuum geometric phase, which is of physical interest, can be deducted by using the operator normal product, and the doubt of validity and universality for the normal-normal procedure applied to time-dependent quantum systems is thus proposed. In the Appendix, the discussion of possible experimental realizations of quantum-vacuum geometric phases is briefly presented.

Abstract:
Several relativistic quantum gravitational effects such as spin-rotation coupling, gravitomagnetic charge and gravitational Meissner effect are investigated in the present letter. The field equation of gravitomagnetic matter is suggested and a static spherically symmetric solution of this equation is offered. With foreseeable improvements in detecting and measuring technology, it is possible for us to investigate quantum mechanics in weak-gravitational fields. The potential implications of these gravitational effects (or phenomena) to some problems are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The physically interesting gravitational analogue of magnetic monopole in electrodynamics is considered in the present paper. The author investigates the field equation of gravitomagnetic matter, and the exact static cylindrically symmetric solution of field equation as well as the motion of gravitomagnetic charge in gravitational fields. Use is made of the mechanism of gravitational Meissner effect, a potential interpretation of anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo and Ulysses spacecrafts is also suggested.

Abstract:
We investigate the oscillator algebra of the Pegg-Barnett oscillator with a finite-dimensional number-state space and show that it possesses the su($n$) Lie algebraic structure. In addition, a so-called supersymmetric Pegg-Barnett oscillator is suggested, and the related topics such as the algebraic structure and particle occupation number of the Pegg-Barnett oscillator are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
Neutron spin can be coupled to the Earth's rotating frequency. Once if the Earth's rotating frequency is time-dependent, then the neutron will acquire a Berry's topological phase (cyclic adiabatic geometric phase). So, a potential method to investigate the Earth's time-varying rotating frequency by measuring the phase difference between geometric phases of neutron spin polarized vertically down and up is proposed.

Abstract:
The rapidly rotational motion of C$_{60}$ molecules provides us with an ingenious way to test Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling. The spin-rotation coupling of electrons in the rotating C$_{60}$ molecule is considered in the present letter. It is shown that the intrinsic spin (gravitomagnetic moment) of the electron that can be coupled to the time-dependent rotating frequency of rotating frame of reference (C$_{60}$ molecule) results in a geometric phase, which may be measured through the electronic energy spectra of C$_{60}$ molecules.

Abstract:
A new quantum optical mechanism to realize simultaneously negative electric permittivity and magnetic permeability is suggested. In order to obtain a negative permeability, we choose a proper atomic configuration that can dramatically enhance the contribution of the magnetic-dipole allowed transition via the atomic phase coherence. It is shown that the atomic system chosen with proper optical parameters can give rise to striking electromagnetic responses (leading to a negative refractive index) and that the atomic vapour becomes a left-handed medium in an optical frequency band. Differing from the previous schemes of artificial composite metamaterials (based on classical electromagnetic theory) to achieve the left-handed materials, which consist of anisotropic millimetre-scale composite structure units, the left-handed atomic vapour presented here is isotropic and homogeneous at the atomic-scale level. Such an advantage may be valuable in realizing the superlens (and hence perfect image) with left-handed atomic vapour.

Abstract:
A new formalism for electromagnetic and mechanical momenta in a metamaterial is developed by means of the technique of wave-packet integrals. The medium has huge mass density and can therefore be regarded as almost stationary upon incident electromagnetic waves. A clear identification of momentum density and momentum flow, including their electromagnetic and mechanical parts, is obtained by employing this formalism in a lossless dispersive metamaterial (including the cases of impedance matching and mismatching with vacuum). It is found that the ratio of the electromagnetic momentum density to the mechanical momentum density depends on the impedance and group velocity of the electromagnetic wave inside the metamaterial. One of the definite results is that both the electromagnetic momentum and the mechanical momentum in the metamaterial are in the same direction as the energy flow, instead of in the direction of the wave vector. The conservation of total momentum is verified. In addition, the law of energy conservation in the process of normal incidence is also verified by using the wave-packet integral of both the electromagnetic energy density and the electromagnetic p