Abstract:
We explore the coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) in a lattice array under selective in-phase harmonic modulations, in which some selected lattice sites are driven by in-phase harmonic oscillating fields and other lattice sites are undriven. Due to the occurrence of CDT, if the driving amplitude $A$ and the driving frequency $\omega$ are tuned to satisfy the zeroth-order Bessel function $J_0(A/\omega)=0$, the driven lattice sites are approximately decoupled with the undriven lattice sites. The CDT even takes place in lattice systems with high-order couplings between non-nearest lattice sites. By using the CDT, we propose a scheme for realizing directed transport of a single particle. It is possible to observe the CDT in the engineered optical waveguide array, which provides a new opportunity for controlling light propagation and designing switch-like couplers.

Abstract:
A systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966 to January 2010) was conducted using specific search terms. A review of Web of Science and a manual review of references were also performed. Eligible studies were randomized control trials (RCTs) that compared H2RA and sucralfate for the prevention of stress ulcer in mechanically ventilated patients. Main outcome measures were rates of overt bleeding, clinically important gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, ventilator-associated pneumonia, gastric colonization and ICU mortality.Ten RCTs with 2,092 participants on mechanical ventilation were identified. Meta-analysis showed there was a trend toward decreased overt bleeding when H2RA was compared with sucralfate (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.53). A total of 12 clinically important GI bleeding events occurred among 667 patients (1.8%) in the H2RA group compared with 26 events among 673 patients (3.9%) in the sucralfate groups. Prophylaxis with sucralfate decreased the incidence of gastric colonization (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.19) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.64). Subgroup analysis showed H2RA was not superior to sucralfate in reducing early-onset pneumonia (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.36 to 1.07) but had a higher late-onset pneumonia rate (OR = 4.36, 95%CI: 2.09 to 9.09) relative to sucralfate. No statistically significant reduction was observed in mortality of ICU between groups (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.34).In patients with mechanical ventilation, H2RA resulted in no differential effectiveness in treating overt bleeding, but had higher rates of gastric colonization and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Additional RCTs of stress ulcer prophylaxis with H2RA and sucralfate are needed to establish the net benefit and risks of adverse effect in mechanically ventilated patients.Stress-related mucosal damage might develop in the stomach and duodenum and progress to ulceration within 4 to

Abstract:
The maximally entangled states are excellent candidates for achieving Heisenberg-limited measurements in ideal quantum metrology, however, they are fragile against dissipation such as particle losses and their achievable precisions may become even worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a robust high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two spin coherent states) in the presence of particle losses. The input spin cat states are of excellent robustness against particle losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. For realistic measurements based upon our scheme, comparing with the population measurement, the parity measurement is more suitable for yielding higher precisions. In phase measurement with realistic dissipative systems of bosons, our scheme provides a robust and realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the SQL.

Abstract:
In quantum interferometry, it is vital to control and utilize nonlinear interactions for achieving high-precision measurements. Attribute to their long coherent time and high controllability, ultracold atoms including Bose condensed atoms have been widely used for implementing quantum interferometry. Here, we review the recent progresses in theoretical studies of quantum interferometry with Bose condensed atoms. In particular, we focus on the nonlinear phenomena induced by the atom-atom interaction and how to control and utilize these nonlinear phenomena. Under the mean-field description, due to the atom-atom interaction, matter-wave solitons appear in the interference patterns, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping exists in the Bose-Josephson junctions. Under the many-body description, the atom-atom interaction can generate non-classical entanglement, which may be utilized to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit.

Abstract:
We investigate the Landau-Zener (LZ) process in spin-orbit coupled systems of single or multiple two-level (spin-$\frac{1}{2}$) particles. The coupling between internal spin states and external vibrational states, a simple spin-orbit coupling (SOC), is induced by applying a spin-dependent harmonic trap. Because of the SOC, the single-particle energy-level structures are modified by the Franck-Condon (FC) effects, in which some avoided energy-level-crossings (ELCs) are almost closed and some ELCs are opened. The close of avoided ELCs and the open of ELCs result in the FC blockade and the vibrational transitions, respectively. For a given low sweeping rate, the sequential LZ transitions of ladder-like population transition can be induced by strong SOC. We derive an analytical formula for the final population which is well consistent with the numerical results. For a given strong SOC, the sequential LZ transitions are submerged in the non-adiabatic transitions if the sweeping rate is sufficiently high. Further, we study LZ transitions of multiple interacting two-level Bose particles in a spin-dependent harmonic trap. The interplay between the SOC effects and the interaction effects is explored.

Abstract:
Quantum metrology is the science that aims to achieve precision measurements by making use of quantum principles. Attribute to the well-developed techniques of manipulating and detecting cold atoms, cold atomic systems provide an excellent platform for implementing precision quantum metrology. In this chapter, we review the general procedures of quantum metrology and some experimental progresses in quantum metrology with cold atoms. Firstly, we give the general framework of quantum metrology and the calculation of quantum Fisher information, which is the core of quantum parameter estimation. Then, we introduce the quantum interferometry with single and multiparticle states. In particular, for some typical multiparticle states, we analyze their ultimate precision limits and show how quantum entanglement could enhance the measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit. Further, we review some experimental progresses in quantum metrology with cold atomic systems.

Abstract:
Fluctuating-charge models are computationally efficient methods of treating polarization and charge-transfer phenomena in molecular mechanics and classical molecular dynamics simulations. They are also theoretically appealing as they are minimally parameterized, with parameters corresponding to the chemically important concepts of electronegativities and chemical hardness. However, they are known to overestimate charge transfer for widely separated atoms, leading to qualitative errors in the predicted charge distribution and exaggerated electrostatic properties. We present the charge transfer with polarization current equilibration (QTPIE) model, which solves this problem by introducing distance-dependent electronegativities. A graph-theoretic analysis of the topology of charge transfer allows us to relate the fundamental quantities of charge transfer back to the more familiar variables that represent atomic partial charges. This allows us to formulate a unified theoretical framework for fluctuating-charge models and topological charge descriptors. We also demonstrate the important role of charge screening effects in obtaining correct size extensivity in electrostatic properties. Analyzing the spatial symmetries of these properties allows us to shed light on the role of charge conservation in the electronegativity equalization process. Finally, we develop a water model for use in classical molecular dynamics simulations that is capable of treating both polarization and charge transfer phenomena.

Abstract:
We introduce a novel concept of the {\em pseudo} parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) symmetry in periodically modulated optical systems with balanced gain and loss. We demonstrate that whether the original system is $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric or not, we can manipulate the property of the $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry by applying a periodic modulation in such a way that the effective system derived by the high-frequency Floquet method is $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetric. If the original system is non-$\mathcal{PT}$ symmetric, the $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry in the effective system will lead to quasi-stationary propagation that can be associated with the \emph{pseudo $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry}. Our results provide a promising approach for manipulating the $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry of realistic systems.

Abstract:
We present a cluster Gutzwiller mean-field study for ground states and time-evolution dynamics in the Bose-Hubbard ladder (BHL), which can be realized by loading Bose atoms in double-well optical lattices. In our cluster mean-field approach, we treat each double-well unit of two lattice sites as a coherent whole for composing the cluster Gutzwiller ansatz, which may remain some residual correlations in each two-site unit. For a unbiased BHL, in addition to conventional superfluid phase and integer Mott insulator phases, we find that there are exotic fractional insulator phases if the inter-chain tunneling is much stronger than the intra-chain one. The fractional insulator phases can not be found by using a conventional mean-field treatment based upon the single-site Gutzwiller ansatz. For a biased BHL, we find there appear single-atom tunneling and interaction blockade if the system is dominated by the interplay between the on-site interaction and the inter-chain bias. In the many-body Landau-Zener process, in which the inter-chain bias is linearly swept from negative to positive or vice versa, our numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observation [Nat. Phys. \textbf{7}, 61 (2011)]. Our cluster bosonic Gutzwiller treatment is of promising perspectives in exploring exotic quantum phases and time-evolution dynamics of bosonic particles in superlattices.

Abstract:
Stimulated by the experimental realization of spin-dependent tunneling via gradient magnetic field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 225301 (2013); Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 185301 (2013)], we investigate dynamics of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling of single spin-half particles in a periodic potential under the influence of a spin-dependent constant force. In analogy to the Wannier-Stark system, we call our system as the Wannier-Zeeman system. If there is no coupling between the two spin states, the system can be described by two crossing Wannier-Stark ladders with opposite tilts. The spatial crossing between two Wannier-Stark ladders becomes a spatial anti-crossing if the two spin states are coupled by external fields. For a wave-packet away from the spatial anti-crossing, due to the spin-dependent constant force, it will undergo spatial Landau-Zener transitions assisted by the intrinsic intra-band Bloch oscillations, which we call the Bloch-Landau-Zener dynamics. If the inter-spin coupling is sufficiently strong, the system undergoes adiabatic Bloch-Landau-Zener dynamics, in which the spin dynamics follows the local dressed states. Otherwise, for non-strong inter-spin couplings, the system undergoes non-adiabatic Bloch-Landau-Zener dynamics.