Abstract:
As an important external governance mechanism, product market competition has considerable impact on the marginal value of a company’s cash holdings in various aspects. This paper examines the impact of predatory risk on the marginal value of cash holdings in product market by sampling Chinese A-share listed companies from 2000 to 2013. It shows that the predation risk in the product market increases the marginal value of cash holdings by 0.2 Yuan.

Abstract:
At present, the incidence of diabetes complicated with gallstones is increasing rapidly, and there are still many problems in the pathogenesis of the disease. Diabetes complicated with gallstones is a chronic complication of diabetes, with diabetes-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, gallbladder emptying disorders, Oddis sphincter dysfunction, gastrointestinal hormone disorders, gastrointestinal dyskinesia, fat metabolism disorders, bile Bacterial infection and other factors are related. In recent years, it has been found that in diabetic patients, Telocytes (TC) and Cajal interstitial cells (ICC) are reduced in the biliary system. In addition, the contact between ICC cells and smooth muscle cells and nerve endings is significantly reduced, so it is considered that bile Stone formation has a certain relationship with TC and ICC reduction. This article reviews recent research progress.

Abstract:
The exact determination of isotopic ages of hydrocarbon accumulation, reconstruction and destruction periods using traditional isotopic dating methods is complex because of the small numbers of minerals that correlate with hydrocarbons. The quantitative and direct study of hydrocarbon geochronology is therefore an important scientific problem for isotope geochronology and petroleum geology. This study obtains two isotopic ages from a quartz vein sample associated with bitumen in a reverse fault located in the Bankeng paleo-reservoir on the southern margin of the middle Yangtze block (the northern margin of the Jiangnan-Xuefeng uplift) by inclusion 40Ar/39Ar stepwise crushing in a vacuum. Two different and good linear inverse isochrons that correspond to two age plateaus were determined. The two ages correspond to primary inclusions of about 228 Ma and secondary inclusions of about 149 Ma. These inclusion groups represent two distinct kinds of fluids. Quartz veins associated with bitumen in faulted paleo-reservoirs, which have a strict response relationship with tectonization and hydrocarbon accumulation, are the unified products of tectonic processes, hydrocarbon accumulation and reconstruction. Therefore, they can be used to constrain the hydrocarbon accumulation, reconstruction and destruction periods that are controlled by multiphase and complicated tectonic actions. The evolutionary processes of hydrocarbon accumulation can be divided into two periods consisting of a primary oil and gas reservoir formation period in the late Indosinian epoch (about 228 Ma) and a period of oil and gas reservoir reconstruction in the early Yanshan epoch (about 149 Ma). This study quantitatively reconstructs the hydrocarbon accumulation and destruction chronological framework of a giant hydrocarbon accumulation belt along the southern margin of the middle Yangtze block (the northern margin of the Jiangnan-Xuefeng uplift) controlled by multiphase and complicated tectonism. The two ages associated with hydrocarbons here correspond to the special controlling actions of continental tectonics in the Jiangnan-Xuefeng uplift that affected the timeline of reconstruction and destruction in this giant marine hydrocarbon accumulation. This study shows the feasibility and usefulness of dating inclusions with the 40Ar/39Ar technique for hydrocarbon geochronology, especially in the marine hydrocarbon accumulation region of southern China within a geological setting of old strata, high thermal evolution hydrocarbons, and complex, multiphase and multicycle tectonization.

Abstract:
The quad-curl problem arises in the study of the electromagnetic interior transmission problem and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In this paper, we study the quad-curl eigenvalue problem and propose a mixed method using edge elements for the computation of the eigenvalues. To the author's knowledge, it is the first numerical treatment for the quad-curl eigenvalue problem. Under suitable assumptions on the domain and mesh, we prove the optimal convergence. In addition, we show that the divergence-free condition can be bypassed. Numerical results are provided to show the viability of the method.

In this paper, we investigate the optimization of mutual proportional reinsurance—a mutual reserve system that is in- tended for the collective reinsurance needs of homogeneous mutual members, such as P&I Clubs in marine mutual in- surance and reserve banks in the US Federal Reserve, where a mutual member is both an insurer and an insured. Compared to general (non-mutual) insurance models, which involve one-sided impulse control (i.e., either downside or upside impulse) of the underlying insurance reserve process that is required to be positive, a mutual insurance differs in allowing two-sided impulse control (i.e., both downside and upside impulse), coupled with the classical proportional control of reinsurance. We prove that a special band-type impulse control (a, A, B, b) with a=0 and a<A<B<b, coupled with a proportional reinsurance policy (classical control), is optimal when the objective is to minimize the total maintenance cost. That is, when the reserve position reaches a lower boundary of a=0, the reserve should immedi- ately be raised to level A; when the reserve reaches an upper boundary of b, it should immediately be reduced to a levelB. An interesting finding produced by the study reported in this paper is that there exists a situation such that if the up-

Abstract:
The hyperfine induced $2s2p ^3P_0, ^3P_2 \to 2s^2 ^1S_0$ E1 transition probabilities of Be-like ions were calculated using grasp2K based on multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method and HFST packages. It was found that the hyperfine quenching rates are strongly affected by the interference for low-Z Be-like ions, especially for $2s2p ^3P_0 \to 2s^2 ^1S_0$ transition. In particular, the trends of interference effects with atomic number $Z$ in such two transitions are not monotone. The strongest interference effect occurs near Z=7 for $2s2p ^3P_0 \to 2s^2 ^1S_0$ E1 transition, and near Z=9 for $2s2p ^3P_2 \to 2s^2 ^1S_0$ E1 transition.

Abstract:
TThe glitch of anomalous X-ray pulsars \& soft gamma repeaters (AXP/SGRs) usually accompanied with detectable energy releases manifesting as X-ray bursts or outbursts, while the glitch of some pulsars like Vela release negligible energy. We find that these two types of glitches can naturally correspond to two types of starquake of solid strange stars. By applying the EoS of quark cluster star and some realistic pulsar parameters, we can reproduce consistent results compared with previous constraints and observations.

Abstract:
It is shown that the curvature function satisfies a nonlinear evolution equation under the general curve shortening flow and a detailed asymptotic behavior of the closed curves is presented when they contract to a point in finite time.

Abstract:
By making use of the approximation method, we obtain the existence and regularity of the viscosity solutions for the generalized mean curvature flow. The asymptotic behavior of the flow is also considered. In particular, the Dirichlet problem of the degenerate elliptic equation $$ -|\nabla v|(\mathrm{div}(\frac{\nabla v}{|\nabla v|})+\nu)=0 $$ is solvable in viscosity sense.

Abstract:
In this paper, we show the global well-posedness for periodic gKdV equations in the space $H^s(\mathbb{T})$, $s\ge \frac12$ for quartic case, and $s> \frac59$ for quintic case. These improve the previous results of I-team in 2004. In particular, the result is sharp for quintic case. The main approaches are the I-method combining with the resonance decomposition developed by Miao et al in 2010, and a bilinear Strichartz estimate in periodic setting.