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Trends in surgical site infections in general surgery at a tertiary hospital
B. Ravinder Reddy,Jhansi Vani,Prashant S. Gade,Swapnil V. Kurkure
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Surgical site infections (SSI) are a preventable cause of hospital acquired infections, which increase morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective analysis of SSIs in patients undergoing general surgical and gastroenterological operations. The observed incidence was 3.63%. The commonest procedures resulting in SSI were those who underwent laparotomy for bowel resections. The commonest organisms isolated were Enterococcus and Klebsiella species. SSIs can be further reduced by strict adherence to SSI prevention guide-lines.
Sacral neuromodulation therapy of the lower urinary tract: A review of the literature and unanswered questions  [PDF]
Golnaz Alemi, Vani Dandolu
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.34A001
Abstract:

Objective: To review the evidence surrounding Sacral Neuromodulation therapy and delineate areas that will need more research. Methods: An extensive search was performed on the available literature on SNM for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Based on the results of the search, the mechanisms of action, indications, technique, and patient characteristics of therapy failures and success are presented and discussed. Results: SNM is accepted by the FDA since 1997 for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. As it is a relatively new procedure, there are variations in the technique of lead placement, generator choice, testing interval, patient selection, time to explantation, and definitions of therapy failures and successes. Conclusions: SNM is a safe and therapeutic option for the treatment of urgencyfrequency syndrome, urge incontinence, and idiopathic urinary retention. However, there are multiple unanswered questions that require extensive research.

DIC Score: Statistical Relationship with PT, APTT, and Simplified Scoring Systems with Combinations of PT and APTT
Vani Chandrashekar
ISRN Hematology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/579420
Abstract:
A Benign form of HbE/ Beta-Thalassemia
Vani Chandrashekar
Journal of Hematological Malignancies , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jhm.v2n1p37
Abstract: HbE/ β-thalassemia has a variable presentation with symptoms varying from a mild to severe form of thalassemia. We present a case of incidentally discovered HbE/β-thalassemia in a twenty eight year old male. He had splenomegaly, hemoglobin of 14.9 gm/dL and microcytic red cell indices. He had an HbE of 39.4%, HbF of 57.5% and HbA formed 3% of the total hemoglobin.
LMN Facial Palsy in Pregnancy: An Opportunity to Predict Preeclampsia—Report and Review
Vani Aditya
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/626871
Abstract: Facial paralysis is the most frequent unilateral cranial nerve pathology affecting pregnant population 2 to 4 times more often than the nonpregnant population. There exists an association with preeclampsia but this has largely been overlooked. Clinicians often dismiss it for idiopathic palsy as seen in the present case. A 30-year-old woman, Gravida 4, Para 3, presented at 26 weeks pregnancy with complaints of facial weakness, blurring of vision, altered taste sensation, increased noise sensitivity for 1 month, headache since 18 days, and vomiting since 2-3 days. Her pulse was 90/min, BP was 170/120, and RR was 18/min. Uterus was 18 weeks size and proteinuria++ was present. Ultrasonography revealed a 26 weeks fetus, severe bradycardia, and absent liquor. HELLP syndrome was diagnosed after investigations. Six units of fresh frozen plasma were transfused. An informed decision for termination of pregnancy was made. She delivered a 450?gram stillborn. The third stage was complicated with postpartum hemorrhage but it was managed successfully. Women with Bell’s palsy during pregnancy should be evaluated critically as in some it may precede preeclampsia which has serious maternal and fetal implications. Therefore, these women should be in regular followup of the obstetrician. 1. Introduction Facial paralysis is an entity that most neurologists and otolaryngologists are familiar with. It is the most common and frequent unilateral cranial nerve pathology. Most commonly it is idiopathic or Bell’s palsy named after Sir Charles Bell who first described this condition and also its association with pregnancy [1]. Bell’s palsy is also associated with preeclampsia but this has been overlooked in the past. The patients have not been followed by the neurologists for such an event. The obstetricians, who often recognize central facial paralysis in severe preeclampsia as a part of stroke, have failed to relate peripheral facial palsy to preeclampsia only to dismiss it for idiopathic palsy as seen in the present case. 2. Case A 30-year-old, gravida 4, para 3, woman presented in antenatal outpatient department (OPD) at 26 weeks pregnancy with complaints of facial weakness, blurring of vision, altered taste sensation, and increased noise sensitivity for 1 month. She had headache since 18 days and vomiting since 2-3 days. All her previous deliveries were at home. In her last delivery at term, she had a stillborn baby. The present case was diagnosed with hypertension when she was three months pregnant and took prescribed antihypertensive drugs for about two months. About twenty
Detection and Enumeration of the Commonest Stool Parasites Seen in a Tertiary Care Center in South India
Vani Chandrashekar
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/808571
Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify common stool parasites in patients attending a tertiary care centre in South India. We evaluated 2355 stool samples and parasites were detected in 7.9% of samples. 41.1% of our patients were in the 45–58-year age group. Protozoal infections were the commonest seen in 7.8% of samples. Entamoeba histolytica was the commonest protozoa (4.6%) followed by Entamoeba coli (1.2%) and Giardia (0.8%). Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba coli were together seen in 0.63%, and they were the commonest organisms seen in samples with multiple-organism infection. Both were equally detected in diarrheal samples. 1. Introduction Approximately, 60% of the world’s population is infected with intestinal parasites [1]. Commonest parasites seen worldwide are Ascaris (20%), Ancylostoma (18%), Trichuris (10%), and Entamoeba histolytica (10%) [2]. The incidence of protozoa and helminthes in stool varies with geographical location. In a study in food handlers in Iran, it was seen that Giardia was the commonest pathogen (4.5%). Other pathogens were Hymenolepis nana (1.29%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.39%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.57%). Entamoeba coli was seen in 9.1%, Iodamoeba in 5% and Blastocystis hominis in 11.3% [3]. In an Ethiopian study, prevalence of hookworm was highest (60.2%), followed by Schistosoma mansoni (21.2%), Trichuris (14.7%), Taenia species (13.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (12.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Giardia (6.2%), and Strongyloides (5.8%) [4]. Eligail et al. reported that the commonest stool parasites reported in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were E. coli (4.08%), Iodamoeba (1.79%), Endolimax nana (1.75%), Ascaris (0.67%), Giardia (0.67%), Chilomastix (0.41%), Hookworm (0.36%), E. histolytica (0.14%), Hymenolepis nana (0.10%), Strongyloides (0.07%), Trichomonas (0.06%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.04%), Balantidium (0.04%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.02%), and Taenia species (0.01%) [5]. In western Nepal, Giardia was the commonest (13.2%) followed by Ascaris (2.1%) and Entamoeba histolytica (1.7%) [6]. Study by Sehegal et al. found that prevalence rate of protozoa infection was 81.2% whereas that of helminthes was 18.8% [7]. They found that the commonest pathogen in children and pregnant women was Giardia (21.4% and 6.9%, resp.) followed by E. histolytica (5.3% and 4.6%). In a recent study by Srihari et al., it was found that E. histolytica was the commonest parasite (43.8%) followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (29.8%) and Giardia (10.53%) [8]. In Marothi and Singh’s study, E. histolytica was the commonest (10.5%) followed by
A Novel Voronoi Based Particle Filter for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion  [PDF]
Vani Cheruvu, Priyanka Aggarwal, Vijay Devabhaktuni
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.331244
Abstract: Seamless and reliable navigation for civilian/military application is possible by fusing prominent Global Positioning System (GPS) with Inertial Navigation System (INS). This integrated GPS/INS unit exhibits a continuous navigation solution with increased accuracy and reduced uncertainty or ambiguity. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of dynamically creating a Voronoi based Particle Filter (VPF) for integrating INS and GPS data. This filter is based on redistribution of the proposal distribution such that the redistributed particles lie in high likelihood region; thereby increasing the filter accuracy. The usual limitations like degeneracy, sample impoverishment that are seen in conventional particle filter are overcome using our VPF with minimum feasible particles. The small particle size in our methodology reduces the computational load of the filter and makes real-time implementation feasible. Our field test results clearly indicate that the proposed VPF algorithm effectively compensated and reduced positional inaccuracies when GPS data is available. We also present the preliminary results for cases with short GPS outages that occur for low-cost inertial sensors.
Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options
Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor,Santosh Kumar Mishra
Journal of Education and Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a) give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b) present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.
RADIATION ABSORPTION ON AN UNSTEADY CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER FLOW PAST A SEMI-INFINITE INCLINED PERMEABLE PLATE EMBEDDED IN A POROUS MEDIUM
K. Jhansi Rani,Ch. V. Ramana Murthy
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Analytical solutions for heat transfer in a laminar flow of a Newtonian viscous electrically conducting and heat generating/ absorbing fluid on an inclined permeable surface has been reported in this paper. The dimensionless governing equations are solved the best possible analytical solution. The influence of various participatingparameters are illustrated graphically and explained in detail. It is noticed that, far away from the bounding surface it is seen that a wide dispersion in the velocity profiles is noticed. Such a phenomena could not be observed in boundary layer region. While the Schmidt number (Sc) remains unchanged and as the porosity of the bounding surface decreases, not much of change in the velocity field is noticed. When the bounding is having vertical, as the Schmidt number (Sc) increases the velocity is observed to be increasing. Also, as the pore size of the fluid bed decreases the velocity is seen to be increasing. As Schmidt number (Sc) decreases the fluid velocity is noticed to be decreasing. The Grashoff number (Gr) contributes to the velocity up to some stage and there after a reverse trend is noticed. The modified Grashoff number (Gm) appears to influence the velocity field inversely.
Paradigmatic and Exploration of Blind Worm
Yellamandaiah Gogula, E.Jhansi Rani
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Active worms pose major security threats to the Internet. This is due to the ability of active worms to propagate in an automated fashion as they continuously compromise computers on the Internet. Active worms evolve during their propagation and thus pose great challenges to defend against them. In this paper, we investigate a new class of active worms, referred to as Tarnen Worm (C-Worm in short). The C-Worm is different from traditional worms because of its ability to intelligently manipulate its scan traffic volume over time. Thereby, the C-Worm camouflages its propagation from existing worm exploration systems based on analyzing the propagation traffic generated by worms. We analyze characteristics of the C-Worm and conduct a comprehensive comparison between its traffic and non-worm traffic (background traffic). We observe that these two types of traffic are barely distinguishable in the time domain. However, their distinction is clear in the frequency domain, due to the recurring manipulative nature of the C-Worm. Motivated by our observations, we design a novel spectrum-based scheme to detect the C-Worm. Our scheme uses the Power Spectral Density (PSD) distribution of the scan traffic volume and its corresponding Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM) to distinguish the C-Worm traffic from background traffic. Using a comprehensive set of exploration metric s and real-world traces as background traffic, we conduct extensive performance evaluations on our proposed spectrum-based exploration scheme. The performance data clearly demonstrates that our scheme can effectively detect the C-Worm propagation. Furthermore, we show the generality of our spectrum-based scheme in effectively detecting not only the C-Worm, but traditional worms as well.
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