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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4329 matches for " Jesus Pastor "
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Benefit function and individual preferences. A generalization of the zero-maximum principle
Juan Aparicio,Jesus Pastor
Economics and Business Letters , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we show that given a utility threshold Luenberger’s benefit function correctly represents individual preferences as long as specific reference commodity bundles are considered. We further show a condition which is sufficient for reaching Pareto optimality that generalizes the zero-maximum principle proposed by Luenberger.Under our hypothesis, the social benefit could be positive, negative or zero, and not necessarily always zero.
A General Input Distance Function Based on Opportunity Costs
Juan Aparicio,Jesus T. Pastor
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/505241
Abstract: There are several distance function definitions in a general production framework, including Data Envelopment Analysis, which can be used to describe the production technology and to define corresponding measures of technical efficiency (notably the Shephard and the directional distance functions). This paper introduces a generalisation of the distance function concept based on the idea of minimizing firm's opportunity cost. We further state a general dual correspondence between the cost function and this new general distance function, which encompasses all previously published duality results. All our results also hold under the assumption that we work in a Data Envelopment Analysis context. 1. Introduction The theory of duality has acquired great popularity in microeconomics [1–4]. Duality theory has allowed to state the most common alternative ways of representing preferences and technologies, such as indirect utility and expenditure functions, cost and distance functions, and so forth. Having different ways to describe a technology seems very suitable since some types of mathematical arguments are easier to demonstrate by using, for example, a cost function instead of a distance function, that is, a direct representation of the technology [1, page 81]. (A firm produces outputs from a set of inputs. In order to analyze firm choices, it is necessary a convenient way to summarize the production possibilities of the firm, that is, which combinations (vectors) of inputs and outputs are feasible. A technology is the set of all these feasible combinations [1].) Both the cost function and the distance function are, by definition, optimization problems. The theory of duality studies under which conditions these two optimization problems are related. Distance functions are natural representations of multiple-output and multiple-input technologies. Shephard [5] was the first to define a distance function in a production context. In particular, the Shephard input distance function measures the largest radial contraction of an input vector consistent with remaining technically feasible. Additionally, the Shephard input distance function is of common use in production theory and it also has a dual relation to the cost function. Nevertheless, the Shephard input distance function is not the unique known distance function in the literature. During the last two decades, Luenberger [6], Chambers et al. [7], Briec and Lesourd [8] and Briec and Gardères [9] have proposed some new achievements with respect to duality theory and distance functions. To be precise,
Directional Distance Functions and Rate-of-Return Regulation
Juan Aparicio,Jesus T. Pastor
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/731497
Abstract: This paper is concerned with formulating directional distance functions assuming that firms operate subject to rate-of-return regulation. To this end, we consider two different contexts. First, we assume that input prices are known, which allows us to extend the rate of return regulated version of Farrell efficiency. Secondly, we assume that input prices are unknown, showing then that a specific reference direction arises as a natural choice for measuring efficiency with directional distance functions. 1. Introduction All over the world, most countries deal with the problem of monopoly by means of regulation. This type of solution is widespread in the case of natural monopolies: water, natural gas, and electric companies. These companies are not allowed to charge any price they want to. Instead, government agencies regulate their output prices. One form of regulation is that of rate-of-return regulation. After the firm subtracts its operating expenses from gross revenues, the remaining net revenue should be just sufficient to compensate the firm for its investment in plant and equipment. In particular, the regulator authorizes the output price which, if anticipated future market conditions are realized, results in the firm earning a rate of return equal to the predetermined allowed level upon which the output price has been estimated. At a subsequent stage, if the obtained firm rate of return is less than the allowed level, the firm can request an increase in the output price. It is well known that one disadvantage of rate-of-return regulation is that it may encourage inefficiency because the regulated firms have no incentive to decrease costs. For this reason, assessing the performance of regulated companies with respect to technical inefficiency is an important issue for government agencies. Measuring inefficiency of firms subject to rate-of-return regulation has been yet studied previously in the literature (see [1–4]). In particular, F?re and Logan [4] introduced and explored a regulated version of Farrell efficiency. Nevertheless, there are other alternatives to measure technical inefficiency in production theory. As Portela et al. [5] argue, on some markets it is not possible or is not desired to modify equiproportionately inputs or outputs. A well-known drawback of Farrell efficiency is the arbitrariness in imposing targets on the efficient frontier preserving the mix within inputs or within outputs, when really the firm’s very reason to change its input and output levels is often the desire to change the mix (see [6]). If so, an efficiency
Identification of redundant and synergetic circuits in triplets of electrophysiological data
Asier Erramuzpe,Guillermo J. Ortega,Jesus Pastor,Rafael G. de Sola,Daniele Marinazzo,Sebastiano Stramaglia,Jesus M. Cortes
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: Neural systems are comprised of interacting units, and relevant information regarding their function or malfunction can be inferred by analyzing the statistical dependencies between the activity of each unit. Whilst correlations and mutual information are commonly used to characterize these dependencies, our objective here is to extend interactions to triplets of variables to better detect and characterize dynamic information transfer. Our approach relies on the measure of interaction information (II). The sign of II provides information as to the extent to which the interaction of variables in triplets is redundant (R) or synergetic (S). Here, based on this approach, we calculated the R and S status for triplets of electrophysiological data recorded from drug-resistant patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in order to study the spatial organization and dynamics of R and S close to the epileptogenic zone (the area responsible for seizure propagation). In terms of spatial organization, our results show that R matched the epileptogenic zone while S was distributed more in the surrounding area. In relation to dynamics, R made the largest contribution to high frequency bands (14-100Hz), whilst S was expressed more strongly at lower frequencies (1-7Hz). Thus, applying interaction information to such clinical data reveals new aspects of epileptogenic structure in terms of the nature (redundancy vs. synergy) and dynamics (fast vs. slow rhythms) of the interactions. We expect this methodology, robust and simple, can reveal new aspects beyond pair-interactions in networks of interacting units in other setups with multi-recording data sets (and thus, not necessarily in epilepsy, the pathology we have approached here).
Processing Facilitation Strategies in OV and VO Languages: A Corpus Study  [PDF]
Luis Pastor, Itziar Laka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33033
Abstract:

The present corpus study aimed to examine whether Basque (OV) resorts more often than Spanish (VO) to certain grammatical operations, in order to minimize the number of arguments to be processed before the verb. Ueno & Polinsky (2009) argue that VO/OV languages use certain grammatical resources with different frequencies in order to facilitate real-time processing. They observe that both OV and VO languages in their sample (Japanese, Turkish and Spanish) have a similar frequency of use of subject pro-drop; however, they find that OV languages (Japanese, Turkish) use more intransitive sentences than VO languages (English, Spanish), and conclude this is an OV-specific strategy to facilitate processing. We conducted a comparative corpus study of Spanish (VO) and Basque (OV). Results show (a) that the frequency of use of subject pro-drop is higher in Basque than in Spanish; and (b) Basque does not use more intransitive sentences than Spanish; both languages have a similar frequency of intransitive sentences. Based on these findings, we conclude that the frequency of use of grammatical resources to facilitate the processing does not depend on a single typological trait (VO/OV) but it is modulated by the concurrence of other grammatical features.

Resolución de conflictos en la sociedad Wayuu contemporánea
Ponce,Pastor;
Frónesis , 2006,
Abstract: this research into the present status of conflict resolution in wayuu society supposes the determination of what is the rationality behind it, since it deals with arrangements between members of the indigenous population and with alijunas, or persons who do not belong to that society. the rationality that governs the solution to conflict is basically found on three levels: a) the social organization, especially the structure of clans and blood lines; b) on certain values, beliefs and representations some of them organized as myths, which explain wayuu beliefs as to the cause of tragedies, and c) the arrangement as such, that can have to do with the process of argumentation that controls diverse moments of the arrangements that involve the litigant parties and the putchi pu.
Simulación de la Polimerización por Radicales Libres en el Intervalo Completo de Conversión
Rivero,Pastor;
Información tecnológica , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642006000300012
Abstract: in this study the simulation of methyl methacrylate free radical polymerization is presented, in order to obtain the conversion and the average molecular weights, considering diffusion-controlled initiation, propagation, chain transfer and termination reactions. the central part of the work is the application of a method previously proposed by the authors for the approximate solution of the kinetic equations when the termination rate coefficient depends on the chain length of the radicals the strategy of the method is to reconstruct the chain length distribution of radicals from its moments to obtain the termination rate distribution moments. the calculated conversion and average molecular weights are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data.
El marianismo en México: una mirada a su larga duración
Pastor, Marialba;
Cuicuilco , 2010,
Abstract: based on of the history of marianism, particularly of marianism in mexico, the psycho-social characteristics of this phenomenon are detailed, and its social function, its forms of relationship and the masculine-feminine gender conflicts are reflected upon.
LA NUCLEARIDAD Y LAS CONSTRUCCIONES DE GRADO ADJETIVAS
PASTOR,ALBERTO;
RLA. Revista de lingüística teórica y aplicada , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-48832008000100003
Abstract: in this article different criteria will be used in order to identify the head of sequences formed by a degree term and a gradable adjective. we will see how both, degree terms and adjectives, act as heads depending on the criterion being considered. thus, based on a notion of headness according to which the head is the member of a phrase that determines the properties of the phrase and selects the complement, the adjective will be responsible for the properties of the sequence [deg+a], while degree terms will be responsible for semantic and categorial selection inside this sequence. on the other hand, a series of formal arguments will show that degree terms take the adjective as their complement. we will conclude that structure of the sequence [deg+a] is headed by deg and we will use the notion of “extended projection” to account for the fact that both degree terms and adjectives are responsible for certain properties of this sequence.
Origins of the Chilean Binominal Election System
Pastor,Daniel;
Revista de ciencia política (Santiago) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-090X2004000100002
Abstract: strategic reaction by the military regime to the defeat of general augusto pinochet in the 1988 plebiscite since the system was formally established during the period between the plebiscite and the first postauthoritarian elections in 1989. this theory, however, offers a mistaken account of the history and evolution of the binominal election system whose origins are considerably more complex than the conventional wisdom suggests. this article explores the internal political processes and the ideology that led the military government to adopt the binominal system. it argues that the election system was the capstone of the authoritarian institutional framework designed by the military government to protect the 1980 constitution from efforts by the concertación to reform it. contrary to popular belief, the binominal system was proposed long before the 1988 plebiscite by arturo marín vicu?a, then secretary of a government commission studying a new electoral law. this article maintains that, more than any other factor, the binominal system reflects and responds to an interpretation of chilean political history between 1960 and 1973 that was widely shared among the pinochet government's legal advisors
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