Abstract:
Discovery of rare or low frequency variants in exome or genome data that are associated with complex traits often will require use of very large sample sizes to achieve adequate statistical power. For a fixed sample size, sequencing of individuals sampled from the tails of a phenotype distribution (i.e., extreme phenotypes design) maximizes power and this approach was recently validated empirically with the discovery of variants in DCTN4 that influence the natural history of P. aeruginosa airway infection in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF; MIM219700). The increasing availability of large exome/genome sequence datasets that serve as proxies for population-based controls affords the opportunity to test an alternative, potentially more powerful and generalizable strategy, in which the frequency of rare variants in a single extreme phenotypic group is compared to a control group (i.e., extreme phenotype vs. control population design). As proof-of-principle, we applied this approach to search for variants associated with risk for age-of-onset of chronic P. aeruginosa airway infection among individuals with CF and identified variants in CAV2 and TMC6 that were significantly associated with group status. These results were validated using a large, prospective, longitudinal CF cohort and confirmed a significant association of a variant in CAV2 with increased age-of-onset of P. aeruginosa airway infection (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% CI=[0.32, 0.88]) and variants in TMC6 with diminished age-of-onset of P. aeruginosa airway infection (HR = 5.4, 95% CI=[2.2, 13.5]) A strong interaction between CAV2 and TMC6 variants was observed (HR=12.1, 95% CI=[3.8, 39]) for children with the deleterious TMC6 variant and without the CAV2 protective variant. Neither gene showed a significant association using an extreme phenotypes design, and conditions for which the power of an extreme phenotype vs. control population design was greater than that for the extreme phenotypes design were explored.

Abstract:
We present a systematic configuration-interaction shell model calculation on the structure of light tin isotopes with a new global optimized effective interaction. The starting point of the calculation is the realistic CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential. The unknown single-particle energies of the $1d_{3/2}$, $2s_{1/2}$ and $0h_{11/2}$ orbitals and the T=1 monopole interactions are determined by fitting to the binding energies of 157 low-lying yrast states in $^{102-132}$Sn. We apply the Hamiltonian to analyze the origin of the spin inversion between $^{101}$Sn and $^{103}$Sn that was observed recently and to explore the possible contribution from interaction terms beyond the normal pairing.

Abstract:
A superintegrable, discrete model of the quantum isotropic oscillator in two-dimensions is introduced. The system is defined on the regular, infinite-dimensional $\mathbb{N}\times \mathbb{N}$ lattice. It is governed by a Hamiltonian expressed as a seven-point difference operator involving three parameters. The exact solutions of the model are given in terms of the two-variable Meixner polynomials orthogonal with respect to the negative trinomial distribution. The constants of motion of the system are constructed using the raising and lowering operators for these polynomials. They are shown to generate an $\mathfrak{su}(2)$ invariance algebra. The two-variable Meixner polynomials are seen to support irreducible representations of this algebra. In the continuum limit, where the lattice constant tends to zero, the standard isotropic quantum oscillator in two dimensions is recovered. The limit process from the two-variable Meixner polynomials to a product of two Hermite polynomials is carried out by involving the bivariate Charlier polynomials.

Abstract:
The non-relativistic approximation of the quark-meson-coupling model has been discussed and compared with the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model which includes spin exchanges. Calculations show that the spin-exchange interaction has important effect on the descriptions of finite nuclei and nuclear matter through the Fock exchange. Also in the quark-meson-coupling model, it is the Fock exchange that leads to a nonlinear density-dependent isovector channel and changes the density-dependent behavior of the symmetry energy.

Abstract:
A partial conservation of the seniority quantum number in $j=9/2$ shells has been found recently in a numerical application. In this paper a complete analytic proof for this problem is derived as an extension of the work by Zamick and P. Van Isacker [Phys. Rev. C 78 (2008) 044327]. We analyze the properties of the non-diagonal matrix elements with the help of the one-particle and two-particle coefficients of fractional parentage (cfp's). It is found that all non-diagonal (and the relevant diagonal) matrix elements can be re-expressed in simple ways and are proportional to certain one-particle cfp's. This remarkable occurrence of partial dynamic symmetry is the consequence of the peculiar property of the $j=9/2$ shell, where all $v=3$ and 5 states are uniquely defined.

Abstract:
The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism.

Abstract:
For a system with three identical nucleons in a single-$j$ shell, the states can be written as the angular momentum coupling of a nucleon pair and the odd nucleon. The overlaps between these non-orthonormal states form a matrix which coincides with the one derived by Rowe and Rosensteel [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 87}, 172501 (2001)]. The propositions they state are related to the eigenvalue problems of the matrix and dimensions of the associated subspaces. In this work, the propositions will be proven from the symmetric properties of the $6j$ symbols. Algebraic expressions for the dimension of the states, eigenenergies as well as conditions for conservation of seniority can be derived from the matrix.

Abstract:
Space technology is a powerful tool for climate research. Satellite data improve knowledge of the human impact on the Planet’s physical geography. Similarly, remote sensing technology enhances understanding of the human impact on rising global carbon emissions. However, so far satellites have been principally limited to measuring the carbon emissions of cities from space. Standing alone, satellite technology is incapable of advancing the goal of decarbonisation. This will be achieved only if cities create local methodologies that significantly enhance the carbon reduction process. There exists enormous potential to bridge remote sensing for earth observation and global environmental change with local action towards decarbonised urban renewal and redevelopment. Satellite remote sensing has the ability to demonstrate if local remedial strategies are succeeding, and assist with planning, developing, and monitoring low and zero carbon infrastructure systems. Satellite-derived data can facilitate informed discussion and decision-making between community stakeholders to deliver low carbon outcomes at the precinct scale. Satellite-based systems can be integrated within the urban fabric to assist climate change mitigation. This paper is based on current work implemented jointly with municipalities to ascertain where within city precincts carbon emissions originate and how they can ultimately be reduced. It presents space technology as an instrumental tool for understanding the carbon impact of cities—in terms of the carbon intensive patterns and processes that shape human society, as well as having great potential for providing end-user products to communities to enhance the process of decarbonising city precincts.

This paper studies the
electricity generating capacity of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of
MFC research, which targets the long term goals of renewable energy production
and wastewater treatment, this paper considers a niche application that may be
used immediately in practice, namely powering sensors from soils or sediments.
There are two major goals in this study. The first goal is to examine the
performance characteristics of MFCs in this application. Specifically we
investigate the relationship between the percentage of organic matter in a
sample and the electrical capacity of MFCs fueled by that sample. We
observe that higher percentage of organic matter in a sample results in higher
electricity production of MFCs powered by that sample. We measure the thermal
limits that dictate the temperature range in which MFCs can function, and
confirm that the upper thermal limit is 40℃. The new observation is that the
lower thermal limit is -5℃, which is lower than 0℃ reported in the
literature. This difference is important for powering environmental sensors. We
observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly over
a period of 10 days. The second goal is to determine the conditions under which
MFCs work most efficiently to generate electricity. We compare the capacity
under a variety of conditions of sample types (benthic mud, top soil, and marsh
samples), temperatures (0℃, 40℃, and room temperature), and sample sizes
(measuring 3.5cm × 3.5cm × 4.6cm, 10.2cm × 10.2cm × 13.4cm, and 2.7cm × 2.7cm × 3.8cm), and
find that the electricity capacity is greatest at 0℃, powered by benthic mud
sample with the largest chamber size. What seems surprising is that 0℃ outperforms both room temperature and benthic mud sample outperforms marsh
sample, which appears to be richer in organic matter. In addition, we notice
that although the largest chamber size produces the greatest capacity, it
suffers

The Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model is widely used in many disciplines
such as ecology and economics. The model consists of a pair of first-order
nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, we first analyze the dynamics,
equilibria and steady state oscillation contours of the differential equations
and study in particular a well-known problem of a high risk that the prey
and/or predator may end up with extinction. We then introduce exogenous control
to reduce the risk of extinction. We propose two control schemes. The first
scheme, referred as convergence guaranteed scheme, achieves very fine granular
control of the prey and predator populations, in terms of the final state and
convergence dynamics, at the cost of sophisticated implementation. The second
scheme, referred as on-off scheme, is very easy to implement and drive the
populations to steady state oscillation that is far from the risk of
extinction. Finally we investigate the robustness of these two schemes against
parameter mismatch and observe that the on-off scheme is much more robust.
Hence, we conclude that while the convergence guaranteed scheme achieves
theoretically optimal performance, the on-off scheme is more attractive for
practical applications.