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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2876 matches for " Jessica Potrepka "
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The Age of Initiation of Drug Use and Sexual Behavior May Influence Subsequent HIV Risk Behavior: A Systematic Review
Patrick Baldwin,Roman Shrestha,Jessica Potrepka,Michael Copenhaver
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/976035
Abstract: Researchers examining injection drug users (IDUs) in drug treatment have been trying for decades to determine the optimal way to intervene to prevent the transmission and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population. Although efficacious HIV risk reduction interventions are widely available, questions remain about what specific factors are most related to HIV risk behavior and defined as unprotected sexual activity and/or high risk drug use. This review involved an evaluation of the research literature in order to better understand the association between drug use and sexual behavior debut on HIV risk behavior. Findings suggest that drug use debut and sexual behavior debut may be related to subsequent HIV risk behavior. Evidence to date implies that intervening at an earlier age to assist youth to avoid or delay these high risk behaviors may be an additional means of reducing subsequent HIV risk. 1. Introduction Globally, an estimated 3 million people who inject drugs are living with HIV, representing roughly one in 10 infections worldwide [1]. An estimated 49,273 individuals in the U.S. were infected with HIV in 2011 and injection drug users (IDUs) remain at high risk for HIV transmission. Since the epidemic began, nearly 182,000 injection drug users with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including an estimated 4,218 in 2010. Of the approximate 32,050 new cases of AIDS reported in 2011, 3,961 were IDU-associated. In 2011, 7.4% of all newly diagnosed cases in adults and adolescents were from IDU-associated behavior [2]. With the high rate of HIV risk in the IDU population, it is even more important to understand the events leading to risk behavior. Part of the global HIV epidemic involves adolescents who are initiating sexual activity at progressively earlier ages [3] and putting themselves and others at increased risk for HIV infection. A 2011 CDC survey found that 47% of high school students reported having sexual intercourse, 6.2% reported having intercourse before age 13, and an alarming 39.8% reported not using a condom during their last intercourse [4]. The average reported age of first sexual intercourse in the USA is age 14.4, with more males than females (9.0% versus 3.4%, resp.), and more African-American teens than other racial/ethnic groups reporting sexual activity before age 13—highlighting a common racial disparity pattern [4, 5]. Although data exist regarding HIV risk and prevalence rates, questions remain about what factors are most predictive of subsequent HIV risk behavior among adolescents and young adults, and thus
Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners in Malaysia
Michael M. Copenhaver,Noor Tunku,Ifeoma Ezeabogu,Jessica Potrepka,Muhammad Muhsin A. Zahari,Adeeba Kamarulzaman,Frederick L. Altice
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/131045
Abstract: HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia represent a critical target population for secondary HIV risk reduction interventions and care. We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI designed to reduce secondary HIV risk and improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among soon-to-be-released HIV-infected prisoners. Our formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders, members of the target population, and their family members. Based on all information, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of eight 2-hour sessions that cover a range of specified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to accommodate their particular substance abuse, HIV risk, and antiretroviral adherence issues. This study provides a complete example of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI—taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members and their families—for use in real world prison settings where high-risk populations are concentrated. 1. Introduction HIV-infected drug users who cycle into and out of correctional systems continue to fuel the HIV pandemic and, as such, they represent a significant vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Certain parts of the world, such as Malaysia, are disproportionately impacted by this problem [1]. A rapidly expanding body of research literature, including that of our own international team of investigators, indicates that criminal justice facilities can be ideal settings for identifying previously undiagnosed cases of HIV [2–6] as well as initiating treatment for HIV [2, 7–9]. Providing secondary HIV risk reduction interventions and engaging inmates in subsequent care, however, is often challenging [10–12] and insufficient [13–15]. Because reentering the community upon release is often characterized by a significant decline in all forms of healthcare for HIV-infected prisoners, this transition can represent a grave threat to individual and public health. A key issue facing the correctional and community healthcare systems today is therefore how to best assist inmates to maintain the low HIV transmission risk status they have been able to achieve as they transition from the highly structured prison setting [16]. Evidence-based interventions (EBIs)
Space Technology for Decarbonising City Precincts  [PDF]
Jessica Bunning
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.55042
Abstract: Space technology is a powerful tool for climate research. Satellite data improve knowledge of the human impact on the Planet’s physical geography. Similarly, remote sensing technology enhances understanding of the human impact on rising global carbon emissions. However, so far satellites have been principally limited to measuring the carbon emissions of cities from space. Standing alone, satellite technology is incapable of advancing the goal of decarbonisation. This will be achieved only if cities create local methodologies that significantly enhance the carbon reduction process. There exists enormous potential to bridge remote sensing for earth observation and global environmental change with local action towards decarbonised urban renewal and redevelopment. Satellite remote sensing has the ability to demonstrate if local remedial strategies are succeeding, and assist with planning, developing, and monitoring low and zero carbon infrastructure systems. Satellite-derived data can facilitate informed discussion and decision-making between community stakeholders to deliver low carbon outcomes at the precinct scale. Satellite-based systems can be integrated within the urban fabric to assist climate change mitigation. This paper is based on current work implemented jointly with municipalities to ascertain where within city precincts carbon emissions originate and how they can ultimately be reduced. It presents space technology as an instrumental tool for understanding the carbon impact of citiesin terms of the carbon intensive patterns and processes that shape human society, as well as having great potential for providing end-user products to communities to enhance the process of decarbonising city precincts.
An Experimental Study of Microbial Fuel Cells for Electricity Generating: Performance Characterization and Capacity Improvement  [PDF]
Jessica Li
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.33024

This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, which targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment, this paper considers a niche application that may be used immediately in practice, namely powering sensors from soils or sediments. There are two major goals in this study. The first goal is to examine the performance characteristics of MFCs in this application. Specifically we investigate the relationship between the percentage of organic matter in a sample and the electrical capacity of MFCs fueled by that sample. We observe that higher percentage of organic matter in a sample results in higher electricity production of MFCs powered by that sample. We measure the thermal limits that dictate the temperature range in which MFCs can function, and confirm that the upper thermal limit is 40℃. The new observation is that the lower thermal limit is -5℃, which is lower than 0℃ reported in the literature. This difference is important for powering environmental sensors. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly over a period of 10 days. The second goal is to determine the conditions under which MFCs work most efficiently to generate electricity. We compare the capacity under a variety of conditions of sample types (benthic mud, top soil, and marsh samples), temperatures (0℃, 40℃, and room temperature), and sample sizes (measuring 3.5 cm × 3.5 cm × 4.6 cm, 10.2 cm × 10.2 cm × 13.4 cm, and 2.7 cm × 2.7 cm × 3.8 cm), and find that the electricity capacity is greatest at 0℃, powered by benthic mud sample with the largest chamber size. What seems surprising is that 0℃ outperforms both room temperature and benthic mud sample outperforms marsh sample, which appears to be richer in organic matter. In addition, we notice that although the largest chamber size produces the greatest capacity, it suffers

Control Schemes to Reduce Risk of Extinction in the Lotka-Volterra Predator-Prey Model  [PDF]
Jessica Li
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.27071

The Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model is widely used in many disciplines such as ecology and economics. The model consists of a pair of first-order nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, we first analyze the dynamics, equilibria and steady state oscillation contours of the differential equations and study in particular a well-known problem of a high risk that the prey and/or predator may end up with extinction. We then introduce exogenous control to reduce the risk of extinction. We propose two control schemes. The first scheme, referred as convergence guaranteed scheme, achieves very fine granular control of the prey and predator populations, in terms of the final state and convergence dynamics, at the cost of sophisticated implementation. The second scheme, referred as on-off scheme, is very easy to implement and drive the populations to steady state oscillation that is far from the risk of extinction. Finally we investigate the robustness of these two schemes against parameter mismatch and observe that the on-off scheme is much more robust. Hence, we conclude that while the convergence guaranteed scheme achieves theoretically optimal performance, the on-off scheme is more attractive for practical applications.

A Refutation of the Clique-Based P=NP Proofs of LaPlante and Tamta-Pande-Dhami
Hector A. Cardenas,Chester Holtz,Maria Janczak,Philip Meyers,Nathaniel S. Potrepka
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In this work, we critique two papers, "A Polynomial-Time Solution to the Clique Problem" by Tamta, Pande, and Dhami, and "A Polynomial-Time Algorithm For Solving Clique Problems" by LaPlante. We summarize and analyze both papers, noting that the algorithms presented in both papers are flawed. We conclude that neither author has successfully established that P = NP.
Predicting Use of Lights and Siren for Patient Illnesses  [PDF]
Jessica Mueller, Laura Stanley
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2013.33008

Lights and siren are frequently used by Emergency Medical Service (EMS) groups to reduce response times and increase a patient’s chance for survival. However, the use of lights and siren in EMS patient transport has been associated with occasional inappropriate use, higher crash rates involving the ambulance, and a potential “wake effect” increasing crash rates in ambient traffic. This study examines types of patient illnesses and their involvement with either emergency (lights and siren engaged) or non-emergency transport. Patient care records were analyzed from a five-year period from a private medical transportation company. A binary logistic regression model was built to predict the transportation mode (lights and siren or non-emergency-mode) most likely to accompany each unique primary patient illness. Patient illnesses were identified that showed a higher probability of transport using lights and siren. Fifteen illness descriptions were identified from the records as being more likely to result in emergency mode travel, including airway obstruction, altered level of consciousness, breathing problems, cardiac arrest, cardiac symptoms, chest pain, congestive heart failure/pulmonary embolism, heart/cardiac, obstetrics, respiratory arrest, respiratory distress, stroke/cerebrovascular accident, trauma, unconscious, and patients where data was not entered. The patient illnesses associated with lights and siren were not limited to cardiac conditions and symptoms, which suggest that response-time goals based solely on cardiac arrest patients may need to be expanded to include other illnesses such as respiratory conditions. Expanded studies could assess whether or not lights and sirens result in a clinically significant time savings across the spectrum of illnesses that are currently being transported using lights and siren. The list of illnesses identified here as more commonly utilizing lights and siren could be useful to untrained EMS or dispatch workers to assist in minimizing unnecessary emergency mode travel, thereby increasing safety for EMS workers, patients, and the general public.

Building up Systematic Client-Centred Data as a Base for Clinical Outcome within Outpatient Neurorehabilitation  [PDF]
Jessica Vollertsen, Kersti Samuelsson
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2016.41002
Abstract: Objective: This study describes the development and use of a specific database supporting personnel within outpatient neurological rehabilitation to reflect on existing interventions and improve future rehabilitation. Methods: Five outpatient rehabilitation centres in one county council in Sweden were involved in developing and implementing a systematic data collection template within the existing digital medical record system. Data were collected to get more information on the effects of outpatient stroke rehabilitation in patients who received rehabilitation the first year after a stroke (ICD-I64) and patients who received further rehabilitation 1 year or more after a stroke (ICD-I69). Data analysis included evaluation of balance, movement, activity/participation, health-related quality of life, and self-rated health. Results: The ICD-I64 group had positive results after treatment (p < 0.05) for all variables and the ICD-I69 group had positive results for balance and activity/participation. Conclusions: The use of systematic data collection provided a platform for employees and managers to discuss and use clinical results to improve the type and quality of rehabilitation interventions.
Gender Inequality within the U.S. Land-Grant Agricultural Sciences Professoriate
Jessica Goldberger,Jessica Crowe
International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper focuses on gender inequality in the agricultural sciences in colleges of agriculture at U.S. land-grant universities. We ask two questions: (1) What degree of gender inequality exists in the agricultural sciences? (2) Can gender inequality be attributed to differences in human capital; professional networking; means of scientific production1; and/or, research productivity? Drawing on data from a 2005 nationwide survey of land-grant agricultural scientists, we find evidence of significant gender inequality despite few gender differences in scientists’ human capital, professional networking, means of scientific production, and research productivity. Our most robust findings relate to gender differences in scientists’ doctoral training, farming experience, and ties with private industry. Male agricultural scientists’ stronger linkages with land-grant universities, the farming world, and private industry may result in superior career outcomes (in terms of promotion and salary) compared to their female counterparts.
The Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids and Bexarotene on Breast Cancer Cell Progression  [PDF]
Jessica Trappmann, Susan N. Hawk
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.25096
Abstract: Breast cancer cell growth can be inhibited in vivo by retinoid X receptor (RXR) specific retinoids. In both animal and cell culture studies, omega-3 fatty acids share growth regulatory effects similar to those of RXR specific retinoids (rexinoids). One synthetic rexinoid, bexarotene (LCD 1069, Targretin), is used clinically to treat cancer patients. Of concern is that some patients are unable to tolerate high doses of such treatment drugs. We hypothesized that n-3 fatty acids and bexarotene may work synergistically to slow breast cancer cell growth. To test our hypothesis, we used MCF-7 human mammary carcinoma cells and an in vitro cell culture model. We investigated the relationship between the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone and in conjunction with bexarotene in slowing MCF-7 cell growth. Following a 72 hr incubation with the respective treatments, bexarotene enhanced cell growth (p < 0.05) while DHA showed a strong growth inhibitory effect which was not enhanced by the addition of bexarotene (p < 0.05). EPA alone was not effective in altering cell growth (p < 0.05). Interestingly, when combined with bexarotene, EPA was more effective at slowing cell growth than when cells received EPA alone. Thus, select omega-3 fatty acids alone are more effective than bexarotene in slowing MCF-7 cell progression. However, the use of the RXR-selective retinoids may enhance the growth regulatory mechanisms of the fatty acid EPA.
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