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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403551 matches for " Jessica M. Nicklin "
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Self-Regulation of Goals and Performance: Effects of Discrepancy Feedback, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Jessica M. Nicklin, Kevin J. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23030
Abstract: We adopted a social cognitive approach of motivation (Bandura, 1986, 1989, 2002) to examine the influence of normative feedback and self-set goals on positive discrepancy creation and goal revision in the face of a novel task. The moderating effects of self-efficacy and regulatory focus were also examined. A laboratory study in-cluding 297 undergraduate students demonstrated that feedback, whether based on normative standards of performance or goal-performance discrepancies was a strong predictor of positive discrepancy creation and goal revision. Self-efficacy was also an independent predictor of goal revision, but regulatory focus was not. These findings have important practical implications for a variety of performance contexts (e.g., work, school, sports). Individuals will modify their goals based largely on feedback received (goal-performance discrepancies and normative standards); however, self-efficacy independently influences goal revision beyond the effects of feed-back. Other implications for research and practice are discussed.
Role of Anti Angiogenic Therapy in Prevention of Recurrence in Hormonal Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Prevention Strategy and Method of Therapy  [PDF]
M. A. Nezami, Jessica Garner
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.86046
Abstract: Existing literature supports the role of signaling protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor growth and metastasis and furthers its involvement in recurrence. In both experimental and clinical studies, VEGF has been shown to be a significant factor involved for aberrant blood vessel growth, and in fact is the target of several classes of antineoplastic drugs [1] [2] [3] [4]. That said, the current standard of care for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (although improved over the last decade), has not provided a “meaningful preventive shift” since the discovery of angiogenesis and its role in induction of recurrence. In this article, we discuss an anti angiogenic therapy implementing natural compounds to inhibit the production of VEGF. We applied our preclinical data to justify the predicted effect on VEGF. We used liquid biopsy to monitor patients response to therapy as a surrogate for recurrence. We hypothesize that by inhibition of angiogenesis through this protocol, we are able to positively impact tumor recurrence. It is our experience that patients in our sample even with high recurrence scores (based on Oncotype Dx testing) had a major reduction in recurrence when estrogen blockers were combined with this protocol. We also propose longitudinal studies to compare outcomes with combinational therapies with estrogen blockers in highly expected to recur disease.
Adenoviral Delivery of Angiotensin-(1-7) or Angiotensin-(1-9) Inhibits Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy via the Mas or Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor
Monica Flores-Mu?oz, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Abdulaziz Almalik, Stuart A. Nicklin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045564
Abstract: The counter-regulatory axis of the renin angiotensin system peptide angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in cardiac remodelling, acting via the mas receptor. Furthermore, we recently reported that an alternative peptide, Ang-(1-9) also counteracts cardiac remodelling via the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R). Here, we have engineered adenoviral vectors expressing fusion proteins which release Ang-(1-7) [RAdAng-(1-7)] or Ang-(1-9) [RAdAng-(1-9)] and compared their effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes or primary adult rabbit cardiomyocytes, stimulated with angiotensin II, isoproterenol or arg-vasopressin. RAdAng-(1-7) and RAdAng-(1-9) efficiently transduced cardiomyocytes, expressed fusion proteins and secreted peptides, as demonstrated by western immunoblotting and conditioned media assays. Furthermore, secreted Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9) inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (Control = 168.7±8.4 μm; AngII = 232.1±10.7 μm; AngII+RAdAng-(1-7) = 186±9.1 μm, RAdAng-(1-9) = 180.5±9 μm; P<0.05) and these effects were selectively reversed by inhibitors of their cognate receptors, the mas antagonist A779 for RAdAng-(1-7) and the AT2R antagonist PD123,319 for RAdAng-(1-9). Thus gene transfer of Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9) produces receptor-specific effects equivalent to those observed with addition of exogenous peptides. These data highlight that Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9) can be expressed via gene transfer and inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via their respective receptors. This supports applications for this approach for sustained peptide delivery to study molecular effects and potential gene therapeutic actions.
The Effect of a New Placement Process on Student Success in First Semester Calculus  [PDF]
Edgar J. Fuller, Jessica M. Deshler
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49B005
Abstract:

In this work we describe the placement testing and student intake process at a large, land-grant university and show that long-standing general assessment exams administered during secondary schooling are not accurate predictors of success in university level mathematics courses. We then present results indicating that a placement exam administered during arrival as a first-year student provides a strong indicator of potential for student success in first-semester calculus.

EMT and Anti-EMT Strategies in Cancer  [PDF]
M. A. Nezami, Steven Hager, Jessica Garner
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.611110
Abstract: This article discusses the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and addresses the scientific merits on epigenetic regulation of EMT. The importance of EMT as a prognostic biomarker is explored and the rationale on application of multitargeted epigenetic therapy is discussed. We describe a literature review of the epigenetic influence of such process and we present a potentially effective method to reverse the epigenetic switch in favor for MET, in a clinical setting. A case series of advanced solid tumors are summarized aiming at generating hypothesis for the future recommendations for clinical trials targeting the tumor’s biological behavior through inhibition of EMT. Hypothesis: We propose an integral and integrative approach that can modify tumor’s biological behavior through inhibition of EMT, and further reduce the chances of metastasis, that can translate to improved outcome and patient’s survival in advanced disease.
Epigenetic Tumor Response to Hypoxia: An Epimutation Pattern and a Method of Multi Targeted Epigenetic Therapy (MTET)  [PDF]
M. A. Nezami, Steven Hager, Jessica Garner
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.74027
Abstract: In most cases, cancer develops as a result of non-inheritable somatic mutations (epimutations), acquired by the individual adult cell, during the evolution of the cell, and propagated into an expanding clone of progeny of the cells by natural selection [1]. The role of microenvironment in selection for such acquired mutations, or epimutations, is a focus of scientific research in carcinogenesis [2]. Here we describe a defective DNA response to hypoxia due to epigenetic aberrancies, in cancer cellular biology [3]. We also summarize a literature review on hypoxia mediated epigenetic responses, and its role in carcinogenesis and metastasis. Further, we review a novel method of treating hypoxic solid tumors with a combination of epigenetic modifiers with both in vitro and in vivo results in human, translating to an improved prognosis and clinical outcome. We propose that this approach both independently and synergistically (with the current standard of care) can provide an improved outcome.
Forgiving Significant Interpersonal Offenses: The Role of Victim/Offender Racial Similarity  [PDF]
Courtney Cornick, Jessica M. Schultz, Benjamin Tallman, Elizabeth M. Altmaier
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29141
Abstract: The influence of victim/offender racial similarity on victim forgiveness was investigated in a study of interpersonal transgressions. It was hypothesized that racial similarity between victim and offender would influence forgiveness only for transgressions that were less distressing for the victim. Participants were 104 adults (45 Black and 59 White) who provided a narrative description of a significant interpersonal transgression they had experienced and completed measures of transgression-related distress and forgiveness. Forgiveness was measured as positive (benevolence) and negative (revenge, avoidance) motivations toward the offender. For negative motive- tions, revenge and avoidance, there was no effect of racial similarity: more severe distress was associated with less forgiveness for all victim/offender pairings. However, the results revealed a significant interaction of victim/offender racial similarity and distress for positive motivations: Black victims reported increased benevolence towards Black offenders after more distressing transgressions. Victims in other racial combinations reported reduced benevolence for more distressing transgressions. In group favoring of Black offenders by Black victims may be an unexplored aspect of forgiveness. Little research has addressed the potential influence of context on interpersonal forgiveness, and this study suggests that these influences may play an important role.
Best Practice Recommendations for Using Structural Equation Modelling in Psychological Research  [PDF]
Todd G. Morrison, Melanie A. Morrison, Jessica M. McCutcheon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.89086
Abstract: Although structural equation modelling (SEM) is a popular analytic technique in the social sciences, it remains subject to misuse. The purposes of this paper are to assist psychologists interested in using SEM by: 1) providing a brief overview of this method; and 2) describing best practice recommendations for testing models and reporting findings. We also outline several resources that psychologists with limited familiarity about SEM may find helpful.
A Stochastic Model of Latently Infected Cell Reactivation and Viral Blip Generation in Treated HIV Patients
Jessica M. Conway,Daniel Coombs
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002033
Abstract: Motivated by viral persistence in HIV+ patients on long-term anti-retroviral treatment (ART), we present a stochastic model of HIV viral dynamics in the blood stream. We consider the hypothesis that the residual viremia in patients on ART can be explained principally by the activation of cells latently infected by HIV before the initiation of ART and that viral blips (clinically-observed short periods of detectable viral load) represent large deviations from the mean. We model the system as a continuous-time, multi-type branching process. Deriving equations for the probability generating function we use a novel numerical approach to extract the probability distributions for latent reservoir sizes and viral loads. We find that latent reservoir extinction-time distributions underscore the importance of considering reservoir dynamics beyond simply the half-life. We calculate blip amplitudes and frequencies by computing complete viral load probability distributions, and study the duration of viral blips via direct numerical simulation. We find that our model qualitatively reproduces short small-amplitude blips detected in clinical studies of treated HIV infection. Stochastic models of this type provide insight into treatment-outcome variability that cannot be found from deterministic models.
Common Functional Correlates of Head-Strike Behavior in the Pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and Combative Artiodactyls
Eric Snively, Jessica M. Theodor
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021422
Abstract: Background Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomographic (CT) scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA), incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. Conclusions/Significance Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals.
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