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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 194364 matches for " Jessica G Woo "
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Quantitative criteria for improving performance of buccal DNA for high-throughput genetic analysis
Woo Jessica G,Martin Lisa J,Ding Lili,Brown W
BMC Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-13-75
Abstract: Background DNA from buccal brush samples is being used for high-throughput analyses in a variety of applications, but the impact of sample type on genotyping success and downstream statistical analysis remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to determine laboratory predictors of genotyping failure among buccal DNA samples, and to evaluate the successfully genotyped results with respect to analytic quality control metrics. Sample and genotyping characteristics were compared between buccal and blood samples collected in the population-based Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke (GERFHS) study (https://gerfhs.phs.wfubmc.edu/public/index.cfm). Results Seven-hundred eight (708) buccal and 142 blood DNA samples were analyzed for laboratory-based and analysis metrics. Overall genotyping failure rates were not statistically different between buccal (11.3%) and blood (7.0%, p = 0.18) samples; however, both the Contrast Quality Control (cQC) rate and the dynamic model (DM) call rates were lower among buccal DNA samples (p < 0.0001). The ratio of double-stranded to total DNA (ds/total ratio) in the buccal samples was the only laboratory characteristic predicting sample success (p < 0.0001). A threshold of at least 34% ds/total DNA provided specificity of 98.7% with a 90.5% negative predictive value for eliminating probable failures. After genotyping, median sample call rates (99.1% vs. 99.4%, p < 0.0001) and heterozygosity rates (25.6% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.006) were lower for buccal versus blood DNA samples, respectively, but absolute differences were small. Minor allele frequency differences from HapMap were smaller for buccal than blood samples, and both sample types demonstrated tight genotyping clusters, even for rare alleles. Conclusions We identified a buccal sample characteristic, a ratio of ds/total DNA <34%, which distinguished buccal DNA samples likely to fail high-throughput genotyping. Applying this threshold, the quality of final genotyping resulting from buccal samples is somewhat lower, but compares favorably to blood. Caution is warranted if cases and controls have different sample types, but buccal samples provide comparable results to blood samples in large-scale genotyping analyses.
Quality assessment of buccal versus blood genomic DNA using the Affymetrix 500 K GeneChip
Jessica G Woo, Guangyun Sun, Mary Haverbusch, Subbarao Indugula, Lisa J Martin, Joseph P Broderick, Ranjan Deka, Daniel Woo
BMC Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-8-79
Abstract: Buccal cytobrushes stored for ~7 years at -80°C prior to extraction yielded sufficient double stranded DNA (dsDNA) to be successfully genotyped on the Affymetrix ~262 K NspI chip, with yields between 536 and 1047 ng dsDNA. Using the BRLMM algorithm, genotyping call rates for blood samples averaged 98.4%, and for buccal samples averaged 97.8%. Matched blood samples exhibited 99.2% concordance, while matched blood and buccal samples exhibited 98.8% concordance.Buccal cytobrushes stored long-term result in sufficient dsDNA concentrations to achieve high genotyping call rates and concordance with stored blood samples in the context of Affymetrix 500 K SNP genotyping. Thus, given high-quality collection and storage protocols, it is possible to use stored buccal cytobrush samples for genome-wide association studies.While blood is considered the optimal source for DNA, inclusion of a blood draw may deter study participation [1]. Buccal cytobrush collection is a simple, painless procedure that allows for effective DNA sampling from a large population, and has been used in several large epidemiologic studies [2,3]. However, concerns regarding the use of buccal brushes have included the lower quantity of genomic DNA isolated [4], lower quality of DNA [4,5], and the fidelity of results from buccal brushes compared with blood samples [5-7]. In addition, there is a concern that older buccal brush samples may not yield as high-quality results as fresh samples [8].The advent of large scale genotyping platforms has also resulted in a reduction in the amount of DNA required. The Affymetrix 500 K GeneChip requires only 250 ng of total genomic DNA per chip, 500 ng total, and this DNA quantity has not changed with the recent release of the Affymetrix 5.0 and 6.0 chips, which enable genotyping up to 1.8 million genetic markers [9-11]. Thus, the DNA requirements of the Affymetrix chips are well below the expected yield of total DNA for buccal samples. As the Affymetrix system uses restri
Quantitative Analysis of the Human Milk Whey Proteome Reveals Developing Milk and Mammary-Gland Functions across the First Year of Lactation
Qiang Zhang,Judy K. Cundiff,Sarah D. Maria,Robert J. McMahon,Jessica G. Woo,Barbara S. Davidson,Ardythe L. Morrow
Proteomes , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/proteomes1020128
Abstract: In-depth understanding of the changing functions of human milk (HM) proteins and the corresponding physiological adaptions of the lactating mammary gland has been inhibited by incomplete knowledge of the HM proteome. We analyzed the HM whey proteome ( n = 10 women with samples at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) using a quantitative proteomic approach. One thousand three hundred and thirty three proteins were identified with 615 being quantified. Principal component analysis revealed a transition in the HM whey proteome-throughout the first year of lactation. Abundance changes in IgG, sIgA and sIgM display distinct features during the first year. Complement components and other acute-phase proteins are generally at higher levels in early lactation. Proteomic analysis further suggests that the sources of milk fatty acids (FA) shift from more direct blood influx to more de novo mammary synthesis over lactation. The abundances of the majority of glycoproteins decline over lactation, which is consistent with increased enzyme expression in glycoprotein degradation and decreased enzyme expression in glycoprotein synthesis. Cellular detoxification machinery may be transformed as well, thereby accommodating increased metabolic activities in late lactation. The multiple developing functions of HM proteins and the corresponding mammary adaption become more apparent from this study.
New directions in childhood obesity research: how a comprehensive biorepository will allow better prediction of outcomes
Matthew A Sabin, Susan L Clemens, Richard Saffery, Zoe McCallum, Michele W Campbell, Wieland Kiess, Nancy A Crimmins, Jessica G Woo, Gary M Leong, George A Werther, Obioha C Ukoumunne, Melissa A Wake
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-100
Abstract: To establish a unique 'biorepository' of data and biological samples from overweight and obese children, in order to investigate the complex 'gene × environment' interactions that govern disease risk.The 'Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia' collects baseline environmental, clinical and anthropometric data, alongside storage of blood samples for genetic, metabolic and hormonal profiles. Opportunities for longitudinal data collection have also been incorporated into the study design. National and international harmonisation of data and sample collection will achieve required statistical power.Ethical approval in the parent site has been obtained and early data indicate a high response rate among eligible participants (71%) with a high level of compliance for comprehensive data collection (range 56% to 97% for individual study components). Multi-site ethical approval is now underway.In time, it is anticipated that this comprehensive approach to data collection will allow early identification of individuals most susceptible to disease, as well as facilitating refinement of prevention and treatment programs.Obesity in early life is associated with many adverse effects on health including an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), heart and liver disease [1]. In the majority of cases, weight gain is attributable to lifestyle-related factors [2], although a strong genetic contribution to body weight regulation is also recognised [3,4]. Since the first rare single-gene mutations were identified in severe early-onset obesity, far more common variants in key genes (and/or their promoter sequences) have been identified which explain significant weight variability within the population [5]. Most susceptibility alleles probably have only a small direct effect [6], instead acting to determine future disease risk mainly by their interaction with environmental exposures [7]. This process may occur through environmental modulation of gene expression (without alteratio
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes retained from childhood to adulthood predict adult outcomes: the Princeton LRC Follow-up Study
John A Morrison, Charles J Glueck, Jessica Woo, Ping Wang
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2012-6
Abstract: Assess whether risk factors for CVD and T2DM retained from childhood to adulthood predict CVD and T2DM in young adulthood.770 schoolchildren, ages 5–20 (mean age 12), 26-yr prospective follow-up. We categorized childhood and adult risk factors and 26-year changes (triglycerides [TG], LDL cholesterol, BMI, blood pressure [BP] and glucose ≥, and HDL cholesterol < pediatric and young adult cutoffs). These risk factors and race, cigarette smoking, and family history of CVD and T2DM were assessed as predictors of CVD and T2DM at mean age 38.Children who had high TG and retained high TG as adults had increased CVD events as adults (p = .0005). Children who had normal BMI and retained normal BMI as adults had reduced CVD events as adults (p = .02). Children who had high BP or high TG and retained these as adults had increased T2DM as adults (p = .0006, p = .003).Risk factors for CVD and T2DM retained from childhood to adulthood predict CVD and T2DM in young adulthood and support universal childhood screening.
Rezension: Schneider, H., Jordan, R., & Waibel, M. (Hrsg.) (2012). Umweltkonflikte in Südostasien.
Jessica G?rtner
ASEAS : ?sterreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften , 2012,
Abstract:
Best Practice Recommendations for Using Structural Equation Modelling in Psychological Research  [PDF]
Todd G. Morrison, Melanie A. Morrison, Jessica M. McCutcheon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.89086
Abstract: Although structural equation modelling (SEM) is a popular analytic technique in the social sciences, it remains subject to misuse. The purposes of this paper are to assist psychologists interested in using SEM by: 1) providing a brief overview of this method; and 2) describing best practice recommendations for testing models and reporting findings. We also outline several resources that psychologists with limited familiarity about SEM may find helpful.
Reliability Design of Ice-Maker System Subjected to Repetitive Loading  [PDF]
Seong-Woo Woo
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.89056
Abstract: Parametric Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) was used to improve the reliability of ice-maker system with a fractured helix upper dispenser in field. By using bond graphs and state equations, a variety of mechanical loads in the assembly were analyzed. The acceleration factor was derived from a generalized life-stress failure model with a new load concept. To reproduce the failure modes and mechanisms causing the fracture, new sample size equation was derived. The sample size equation with the acceleration factor also enabled the parametric accelerated life testing to quickly reproduce early failure in field. Consequently, the failure modes and mechanisms found were identical with those of the failed sample. The design of this testing should help an engineer uncover the design parameters affecting the reliability of fractured helix upper dispenser in field. By eliminating the design flaws, gaps and weldline, the B1 life of the redesign of helix upper dispenser is now guaranteed to be over 10 years with a yearly failure rate of 0.1% that is the reliability quantitative test specifications (RQ).
El acceso a la justicia de mujeres que viven en situación de violencia
Gutiérrez Gómez,Jessica;
Revista Venezolana de Estudios de la Mujer , 2009,
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to understand what factors hinder access to justice for women living in situations of violence, from legally inadequate policies and procedures, to attorney?s structural or subjective constraints, impeding an effective, efficient and objective intervention towards the survivors. it quotes some of the emotional and security implications for women to settle and initiate criminal proceedings against their aggressors and how many times they end up being revictimizing during the process, finding the dehumanizing treatment, disbelief, impunity, inefficiency, neglect and lack of will to solve their problems. finally, here are mentionned the issues of working with violence victims.
Anemia hemolítica autoinmune en un ni o con hepatitis de células gigantes Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in an infant with giant cell hepatitis
Jessica Gómez,Kathia Valverde
Acta Médica Costarricense , 2012,
Abstract: La asociación de anemia hemolítica autoinmune (AHAI) con hepatitis de células gigantes (HCG) es un trastorno raro en la infancia. Son pocos los casos reportados y la gran mayoría fallecen a pesar de transplante hepático. La AHAI usualmente precede el desarrollo de la afección hepática. El diagnóstico temprano de esta asociación y el inicio de terapia inmunosupresora previene la progresión de la enfermedad. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with giant cell hepatitis (GCH) is a rare disorder in infants. Few cases have been reported and despite receiving a liver transplant, there is high mortality among patients. AIHA usually precedes the development of liver disease. Early recognition of this association and the administration of immunosuppressive therapy prevent progression of the disease. Keywords: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, giant cell hepatitis La asociación de anemia hemolítica autoinmune (AHAI) con hepatitis de células gigantes (HCG) es un trastorno raro en la infancia. Son pocos los casos reportados y la gran mayoría fallecen por fallo hepático, a pesar de trasplante. La AHAI suele preceder el desarrollo de la afección hepática. El diagnóstico temprano de esta asociación y el inicio de terapia inmunosupresora evitan la progresión de la enfermedad. Se reporta un ni o de 1 a o de edad al que se le diagnosticó AHAI al mes y medio de edad y luego desarrolló HCG. Para su manejo, ameritó terapia inmunosupresora con corticoesteroides, inmunoglobulina intravenosa, anticuerpo monoclonal anti-CD20 (Rituximab) y, además, plasmeferésis.
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