Abstract:
in el salvador, the nutritional diet average is composed by a high percentage of maize and kidney bean, especially in the countryside, which is in addition, intimately bound to the traditional culture. in 2007 the ministry of agriculture and livestock (mal) of el salvador, plans a strategy, to give solution to the problems of the producers, stimulating the maize culture with high proteinic content (hpc). it means the promotion of new hybrids and varieties of maize, that within the validation tests, contribute to the increase of the productivity, at the same time as they improve the nutritious quality of grains. the objective of the investigation was, to consider the index of acceptance of oro blanco, platino and protemas cultivars; and to identify social, economic, agronomic and technological variables, that explain the causes of the acceptance or rejection of that technology, by the beneficiary producers of the programme. the investigation was made in the year 2008, at the regions i and iv of el salvador. a survey was done to 133 maize producers, which was applied to the program to promote the productivity of basic grains and pastures, 2006-2007 beneficiary producers. some of the highlighted results were that 60% of the producers were willing to cultivate during the next agricultural cycle, the materials undern study, in 96% of the areas seeded with hpc, in 2007. the cv oro blanco turned out to have major acceptance, with an index of acceptance of 82.5%; protemas, reached 69.6% and the platino obtained 53.7%.

Abstract:
the incipient use of internet in rural areas and there was the assumption that the low educational level, older producers, the lack of infrastructure and computer hardware, affect the interest of producers to know and use the medium of communication. diagnosis was performed to identify factors that determine the use of these electronic media in rural areas of the state of aguascalientes. in april 2008; 81 producers were interviewed by sampling method in "bola de nieve". sociodemographic characteristics were identified: gender, age, education, occupation and aspects of computer use, email and internet. negative correlation was found between the age of producers and computer use (r2= -0.43920) and high positive correlation with educational level (r2= 0.74248), and the need for training in the internet use (r2= 0.89646). notwithstanding the alleged cultural barriers and lack of infrastructure and computer equipment in rural areas, it was possible in three workshops to train 37 farmers in the management of a computer, email and internet. under the light of the results, contrary to the assumption that the internet has no rural penetration, it was found in the area of study, that there is interest in using electronic means of communication as well as the availability of infrastructure (10 000 digital community centers nationwide) so there is a great opportunity for internet use in the transfer of information on web pages, email, video conferencing, distance learning, discussion forums, among other tools and applications like a cost-effective to enhance persona l communication, group and institutional development and strengthening rural families.

Abstract:
agricultural scientists are influenced by several factors when defining the approach to their research. the aim of this paper was to identify demographic, professional and institutional aspects and internal-external influences related to the sustainable, environmental or productivist approach of scientist in aguascalientes, mexico in 2008. the approaches underwent a correlation analysis with 44 influence factors. the sustainable approach had a positive correlation with the specialty, problem-solving with institutional interest, studies on farmers' fields and investigation on farming systems; and a negative correlation with basic research and biotechnology. the environmental approach had a positive correlation with the opinion of the interdisciplinary group in the definition of the problem under investigation. the productivist approach had a positive correlation with specialty, the opinions of users and colleagues in defining the problem, studies on farmers' fields and in the experimental stations, work by technological components and with the researcher's objectivity and a negative correlation with the environmental discipline. the logistic regression model for research with a sustainable approach can be explained by the origin of the researchers, research leaves, type of institution, and source of funding, research on demand of the user and institutional priority, interdisciplinary work, studies on farming systems and by technological components. the environmental model can be explained with research leaves, approval of projects by a technical committee, studies on farmers' fields, interdisciplinary work and studies on farming systems. the productivist model had explicatory variables of the types of institution and work on farming systems.

Abstract:
Los científicos(as) agropecuarios(as) están influenciados(as) por diversos factores para definir su enfoque de investigación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar aspectos demográficos y profesionales, institucionales e influencias internas-externas asociados al enfoque sostenible, ecologista o productivista de los científicos(as) en Aguascalientes, México en 2008. Los enfoques fueron sometidos a un análisis de correlación con 44 factores de influencia. El enfoque sostenible correlacionó positivamente con la especialidad, la solución de problemas de interés institucional, investigación en terrenos de productores e investigación en sistemas de producción y negativamente con investigación básica y biotecnología. El enfoque ecologista correlacionó positivamente con la opinión del grupo interdisciplinario en la definición del problema a investigar. El enfoque productivista correlacionó positivamente con la especialidad, opinión del usuario y colegas en la definición del problema, estudios en terrenos de productores y en la estación experimental, trabajos por componente tecnológico y con la objetividad del investigador(a), y negativamente con la disciplina ecología. El modelo de regresión logística para la investigación con enfoque sostenible se explica por el origen de los investigadores(as), estancias de investigación, tipo de institución, fuente de financiamiento, investigación por demanda del usuario y prioridad institucional, trabajo interdisciplinario, estudios tanto en sistemas de producción como por componente tecnológico. El modelo ecologista se explica por las estancias de investigación, aprobación del proyecto por un comité técnico, investigación en terrenos de productores, trabajo interdisciplinario y estudios en sistemas de producción. El modelo productivista tuvo las variables explicatorias tipo de institución y trabajo en sistemas de producción. Agricultural scientists are influenced by several factors when defining the approach to their research. The aim of this paper was to identify demographic, professional and institutional aspects and internal-external influences related to the sustainable, environmental or productivist approach of scientist in Aguascalientes, Mexico in 2008. The approaches underwent a correlation analysis with 44 influence factors. The sustainable approach had a positive correlation with the specialty, problem-solving with institutional interest, studies on farmers' fields and investigation on farming systems; and a negative correlation with basic research and biotechnology. The environmental approach had a positiv

Abstract:
In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: (1). This equation has only 0.81% error compared to the common accepted value [1]. The parameters in the equation are the following: the fine structure constant, qthe elementary charge, the mass of the electron, the permittivity of the free space, ethe exponential function and the relation between a circumference and its diameter. Values attached:[2],

Abstract:
The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: (1)
being q the elementary charge, ε0 the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2].
In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: (2)
being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: (3)
This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: (4)
This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation.
As the cosine function is periodical, the Equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility.
It will also be shown that another elegant way to show Equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): (5)
having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.

Abstract:
In the history of mathematics
different methods have been used to detect if a number is prime or not. In this
paper a new one will be shown. It will be demonstrated that if the following
equation is zero for a certain number p,
this number p would be prime. And
being m an integer number higher than (the lowest, the most efficient the operation). . If the result is an integer, this result will tell
us how many permutations of two divisors, the input number has. As you can
check, no recurrent division by odd or prime numbers is done, to check if the
number is prime or has divisors. To get to this point, we will do the
following. First, we will create a domain with all the composite numbers. This
is easy, as you can just multiply one by one all the integers (greater or equal
than 2) in that domain. So, you will get all the composite numbers (not getting
any prime) in that domain. Then, we will use the Fourier transform to change
from this original domain (called discrete time domain in this regards) to the
frequency domain. There, we can check, using Parseval’s theorem, if a certain
number is there or not. The use of Parseval’s theorem leads to the above
integral. If the number p that we
want to check is not in the domain, the result of the integral is zero and the
number is a prime. If instead, the result is an integer, this integer will tell
us how many permutations of two divisors the number p has. And, in consequence information how many factors, the number p has. So, for any number p lower than 2m？- 1, you can check if it is prime or not, just making the
numerical definite integration. We will apply this integral in a computer
program to check the efficiency of the operation. We will check, if no further
developments are done, the numerical integration is inefficient computing-wise
compared with brute-force checking. To be added, is the question regarding the
level of accuracy needed (number of decimals and number of steps in the
numerical integration) to have a reliable result for large numbers. This will
be commented on the paper, but a separate study will be needed to have detailed
conclusions. Of course,

Abstract:
el artículo tiene por objetivo describir el conocimiento matemático que surgió de la geometrización de una porción de terreno o espacio real levantada a finales del siglo xviii con un grafómetro y cordel. el levantamiento topográfico se considera como una práctica de referencia en el marco de la aproximación teórica conocida como socioepistemología, mientras que la geometrización es la práctica social asociada. los resultados establecen la matematización y transposición del espacio real en un microespacio y ponen en evidencia los conocimientos matemáticos de la actividad. al final se plantean casos particulares que subrayan la utilidad de los instrumentos y técnicas de medición de la topografía en la resolución de problemas escolares de la geometría euclidiana y de trigonometría.

Abstract:
introduction. a great variety of cytokines are produced locally in the central nervous system in response to microbial infection, and their levels have been used as a diagnostic parameter of infection. objectives: to determine the concentrations of interleukin- 6 (il- 6) in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of newborns with bacterial meningitis and the effectiveness of the determination as a diagnostic tool. material and methods. this was a prospective study from december 2002 to july 2003, in the instituto nacional de perinatologia (inper), in which the concentrations of il- 6 in the csf were measurered in newborns with a clinical diagnosis of sepsis. results. fourteen out of 58 newborns attended during the study period had bacterial meningitis.the mean il- 6 concentration in the meningitis group was 9 994 pg/ml vs 15.4 pg/ml in the control group (p <0.05). sensitivity was (92%),the specificity (100%);the positive predictive value and area under the roc curve support that il- 6 concentration of >50 pg/ml in csf are the cut- off level of neonatal bacterial meningitis. the concentrations of il- 6 in the csf were greater, demonstrating itself that concentrations of il- 6 equal or greater to 50 pg/ml have a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 100%, for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. conclusions. the determination of the concentration of il- 6 in csf could be a useful tool in the meningitis diagnosis; however csf conventional analysis and culture are still the gold standard.

Abstract:
With 10 million new cases and three million deaths a year,the tuberculosis (TB) is one of the illnesses infectocontagiosasmore important of the world, preceded only by the malaria andthe VIH-SIDA, for what it is supported as one of the illnessestransmissible of big worry and occupation for the systemsof health. But not always it was like that, a moment came in the historyof this illness that one believed inclusive in his eradication, withoutit impeded the appearance of new,and the conjunction of old factorsthey have helped to reposicionar to the TB as a problem of attentionimmediate for the public global health. In this work we developa brief review of four factors that are impactandodeeply in the present and future of the TB: 1) The poverty; 2)The resistance to drugs, 3) The systems of diagnosis, and 4) youraffiliation with the virus of the inmunodefi human science. So much froma global perspective as national, and we conclude with the brief one evaluation on as we are preparing ourselves to face tothe tuberculosis