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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1722 matches for " Jerome Hurst "
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Semiclassical Vlasov and fluid models for an electron gas with spin effects
Jerome Hurst,Omar Morandi,Giovanni Manfredi,Paul-Antoine Hervieux
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2014-50205-5
Abstract: We derive a four-component Vlasov equation for a system composed of spin-1/2 fermions (typically electrons). The orbital part of the motion is classical, whereas the spin degrees of freedom are treated in a completely quantum-mechanical way. The corresponding hydrodynamic equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the phase-space distribution function. This hydrodynamic model is closed using a maximum entropy principle in the case of three or four constraints on the fluid moments, both for Maxwell-Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Seeking a Balance: Helping Pre-Service Teachers Develop Positive Attitudes towards Mathematics as They Develop Competency  [PDF]
Chris Hurst, Audrey Cooke
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24022
Abstract: Mathematical competence of teachers continues to be an issue of great interest to mathematics educators within tertiary institutions and it is often thought of simultaneously with the notion of mathematics anxiety. While there has been considerable recent research into the latter, no clear conclusions have been able to be drawn about many aspects of the phenomenon and how it is linked to mathematical competence. Most recently, international studies have highlighted notable differences in the standards of teacher preparation in different countries and in Australia new standards for accreditation of teacher education programs have been drafted. This paper reports on a part of on-going research into mathematics anxiety and competence of pre-service teachers. It uses two small samples of pre-service teachers from different cohorts of a Bachelor of Education course and attempts to identify factors that may help develop positive attitudes towards mathematics as they seek to develop their competency in mathematics. In addition, as a response to greater reported levels of anxiety regarding cognitive and knowledge traits, the paper identifies targeted professional learning and social constructivist teaching as key factors as well as the need to identify personal knowledge of mathematics as a prelude to seeking to become more competent.
Challenges for health systems in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000600007
Abstract: for reasons of equity most oecd countries have chosen to base their funding of health care mainly on public sources. there is an almost universal problem of affordability in the health systems of these countries, arising from the tension between the willingness of populations to pay taxes and the eagerness of patients to use health services where these are free or heavily subsidized at the point of use. these tensions are likely to be exacerbated by a surge of new medical technologies adding to demands for health care. some observers have predicted the breakdown of publicly funded systems of health care under new spending pressures. however, governments can deploy a range of policies for handling new demands. they can also take comfort from the fact that many of them have already coped with successive waves of technological change in health care without abandoning their core commitment to the public funding of health systems. furthermore, if standards of living continue to rise, public and private insurers should find it easier to obtain the revenues needed to pay for the improved health care expected by consumers.
Schoolcraft vs. Becoming Somebody: Competing Visions of Higher Education among Working-Class College Students
Allison Hurst
Qualitative Studies , 2010,
Abstract: By exploring the meanings working-class students attribute to college and academic success, this article uncovers important and surprising disjunctures between the official view of college as a pathway to social mobility and students’ own needs and aspirations. While some working-class college students do use college as a “ticket out of the working class,” others reject this view, arguing that the twin functions of college as educative and credentialing should be delinked. It is important for researchers, as well as educators and policymakers, to recognize that working-class college students are not homogenous with regard to occupational interests and expectations of social mobility.
The Origin of Language in Chinese Thought
Cecily Hurst
Anthropoetics : the Journal of Generative Anthropology , 2001,
Conservation of the Nuclear Receptor Response Element in HIV-1 LTRs: A Possible PPAR Response Element?
Tara Hurst
ISRN Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/609348
Abstract: Infection with HIV-1 continues to be a threat to public health. Successful antiretroviral therapy has reduced the risk of developing AIDS but cannot fully eradicate the virus due to latent proviral sequences remaining in infected cells. The 5′-long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1 is critical for the regulation of transcription of the viral RNA and subsequent production of new viral particles. Indeed, the regulation of transcription relies upon the binding of host cell transcription factors and associated regulatory proteins to the LTR. Recently, it has been found that the treatment of cells with ligands of a number of nuclear receptors (NRs) resulted in inhibition of HIV-1 replication. This inhibition likely occurs via effects on other proteins that bind to the 5′-LTR, notably NF-κB. Here, the possible binding site of one NR, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), in the HIV-1 5′-LTR is analysed within isolates of the virus. Given the high mutation rate of HIV-1, it is striking that this region remains conserved in more recent isolates from geographically distinct regions. This work provides a rationale for further study of the binding site recognised by PPAR in the HIV-1 5′-LTR. 1. Introduction The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) remains a major threat to human health in many parts of the world although the incidence of AIDS has declined due to the development of antiretroviral therapy [1]. Advances in treatments have emerged from knowledge of how the virus replicates within host cells. Following infection, the RNA genome of HIV-1 is reverse transcribed and integrated into the host chromosomes as a provirus. The genome structure of HIV-1 includes 5′- and 3′-long terminal repeats (LTRs), as well as coding sequences for viral proteins (Figure 1(a)). The replication of HIV-1 is controlled by cellular proteins that bind to the 5′-LTR of the integrated provirus [2, 3], as well as to downstream regulatory elements within the virus protein coding sequence [4]. One important class of proteins that interact with the 5′-LTR is the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, members of which bind to a specific response element termed NRRE-1-DE (Figure 1(b)) [5]. In particular, the heterodimer formed of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) was able to induce the LTR reporter gene in the presence of the ligands clofibric acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid, respectively [5]. Figure 1: The location of the NRRE-1-DE in the HIV-1 5′-LTR. (a) The HIV-1 genome has a 5′-LTR, protein coding sequences ( gag, pol, vif, vpr,
A Balanced Literacy Initiative for One Suburban School District in the United States
Donita Shaw,Karen Hurst
Education Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/609271
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate how the teachers employed by this suburban USA school district implemented balanced literacy instruction. The 111 teachers who taught grades K-6 completed surveys and were observed. Quantitative data from the surveys and observations were analyzed through descriptive statistics, nonparametric chi-square tests, and Pearson correlations. One open-ended survey question was analyzed qualitatively. Findings show that the majority of teachers had an acceptable understanding of balanced literacy. There were differences among teachers’ instruction on literacy components and structures across grades. Weak correlations among self-reported and observed practices were found. Implications are discussed as the data are being used for research-informed improvements in the district.
Does the biomarker search paradigm need re-booting?
Robert E Hurst
BMC Urology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2490-9-1
Abstract: Bladder cancer is the most expensive cancer to manage from diagnosis to death from any cause [1], mainly because bladder cancer also is one of the most recurrent cancers, with some studies showing over half of patients will recur within 5 years [2]. The most widely held etiologic hypothesis is that superficial bladder cancer arises from mutations in fibroblastic growth factor 2 receptor and ras signaling, whereas the aggressive track has been thought to arise from mutations in the p53 and Rb signaling system [3]. Even though over 75% of bladder cancers are superficial at initial diagnosis, the problem of recurrence is particularly insidious because some 15 to 25% of patients progress to aggressive invasive disease [3] that may be responsible for half the deaths from bladder cancer. Poor patient compliance with cystoscopic monitoring begs for noninvasive biomarkers with sensitivity near 95%. Anything less than 95% sensitivity is asking patients to bet their lives on a test with worse sensitivity than the routine "gold standard" of cystoscopy. No product has reached the commercial market that meets these criteria [4]. Screening of high risk populations, such as smokers or workers exposed to industrial bladder carcinogens, requires high specificity to control costs but can be cost-effective even when sensitivity is 50% or less [5,6]. Prognostic markers to detect disease that is progressing need to emphasize sensitivity over specificity.Because urine is readily available and contains both cells exfoliated from the normal and pathological urothelium as well as proteins from either secretion or cell lysis, bladder cancers have been early targets for biomarker development. Historically, tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and markers of abnormal ploidy using exfoliated cells were targeted. Cytology itself, although highly specific, lacks sensitivity [4]. Some of the TAA biomarkers such as M344, DD23 and 19A211 achieved excellent sensitivity when combined with abnormal ploidy m
Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy: The ERBB2 promoter and its exploitation for cancer treatment
Helen C Hurst
Breast Cancer Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/bcr329
Abstract: Over-expression of ERBB2 (HER-2/neu) is an adverse prognostic factor in human breast cancer, and may predict resistance to both chemotherapy and endocrine therapy (for review [1]). This over-expression was originally attributed solely to amplification of the ERBB2 gene (usually 2- to 10-fold), which frequently occurs both in tumours and in derived cell lines. It became clear, however, that over-expression can also be observed from a single copy gene [2]. Moreover, in all of the cell lines examined that exhibit gene amplification, an elevation in ERBB2 mRNA levels per gene copy was also observed [2]. This indicated that over-expression of the gene precedes and increases the likelihood of gene amplification, suggesting that further research into the transcriptional regulation of ERBB2 would be informative.Consequently, a number of groups have used nuclear run-on assays to measure gene transcription rates, and these have shown an increase in transcription rate sufficient to account for the degree of over-expression in a number of breast tumour derived cell lines that over-express ERBB2 (for review [3]). Subsequent studies therefore sought to identify the gene sequences that are required to mediate this increase in transcription rate. This was largely done by examining the activity of reporter constructs that contain the major transcription initiation site plus various extents of the ERBB2 5'-flanking sequence, and hence comparing promoter activity in breast tumour lines with low and high levels of expression. The results of those experiments are summarized here, and attempts either to target promoter function or to exploit the differential activity of the ERBB2 promoter for use in genetic therapies are reviewed.The human ERBB2 proximal promoter contains typical TATA and CCAAT boxes, at -22 to -26 bp and -71 to -75 bp, respectively (Fig. 1); it should be noted that the TATA box is not conserved in the rodent neu gene, making it difficult to compare studies across specie
Brian TOMLINSON (Ed). English Language Learning Materials: A Critical Review. London, Continuum Books, 2010 (paperback). ISBN: 978 144 112 230 8
Nicolas Robert Hurst
Linguarum Arena : Revista do Programa Doutoral em Didáctica de Línguas da Universidade do Porto , 2012,
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