Abstract:
Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been achieved only in primates (i.e., not in other laboratory or domestic animals). Here, we present the first non-primate animal model of LBRF, using SCID (-B, -T cells) and SCID BEIGE (-B, -T, -NK cells) immunocompromised mice. These animals were infected with B. recurrentis A11 or A17, or with B. duttonii 1120K3 as controls. B. recurrentis caused a relatively mild but persistent infection in SCID and SCID BEIGE mice, but did not proliferate in NUDE (-T) and BALB/c (wild-type) mice. B. duttonii was infectious but not lethal in all animals. These findings demonstrate that the immune response can limit relapsing fever even in the absence of humoral defense mechanisms. To study the significance of phagocytic cells in this context, we induced systemic depletion of such cells in the experimental mice by injecting them with clodronate liposomes, which resulted in uncontrolled B. duttonii growth and a one-hundred-fold increase in B. recurrentis titers in blood. This observation highlights the role of macrophages and other phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection. B. recurrentis evolved from B. duttonii to become a primate-specific pathogen that has lost the ability to infect immunocompetent rodents, probably through genetic degeneration. Here, we describe a novel animal model of B. recurrentis based on B- and T-cell-deficient mice, which we believe will be very valuable in future research on LBRF. Our study also reveals the importance of B-cells and phagocytes in controlling relapsing fever infection.

Abstract:
An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.

Abstract:
The H II region created by the progenitor of SN 1987A was further heated and ionized by the supernova flash. Prior to the flash, the temperature of the gas was 4000 - 5000 K, and helium was neutral, while the post-flash temperature was only slightly less than 10^5 K, with the gas being ionized to helium-like ionization stages of C, N and O. We have followed the slow post-flash cooling and recombination of the gas, as well as its line emission, and find that the strongest lines are N V 1240 and O VI 1034. Both these lines are good probes for the density of the gas, and suitable instruments to detect the lines are STIS on HST and FUSE, respectively. Other lines which may be detectable are N IV] 1486 and [O III] 5007, though they are expected to be substantially weaker. The relative strength of the oxygen lines is found to be a good tracer of the color temperature of the supernova flash. From previous observations, we put limits on the hydrogen density, n_H, of the H II region. The early N V 1240 flux measured by IUE gives an upper limit which is n_H ~ 180 \eta^{-0.40} cm^{-3}, where \eta is the filling factor of the gas. The recently reported emission in [O III] 5007 at 2500 days requires n_H = (160\pm12) \eta^{-0.19} cm^{-3}, for a supernova burst similar to that in the 500full1 model of Ensman & Burrows (1992). For the more energetic 500full2 burst the density is n_H = (215\pm15) \eta^{-0.19} cm^{-3}. These values are much higher than in models of the X-ray emission from the supernova (n_H ~ 75 cm^{-3}), and it seems plausible that the observed [O III] emission is produced primarily elsewhere than in the H II region. We also discuss the type of progenitor consistent with the H II region. In particular, it seems unlikely that its spectral type was much earlier than B2 Ia.

Abstract:
We introduce the concept of multiplication matrices for ideals of projective dimension zero. We discuss various applications and in particular, we give a new algorithm to compute the variety of an ideal of projective dimension zero.

Abstract:
We consider ideals in the ring $\mathbb{Z}_2[x_1,\ldots, x_n]$ that contain the polynomials $x_i^2 - x_i$ for $i = 1, \ldots, n$ and give various results related to the one-to-one correspondence between these ideals and the subsets of $\mathbb{Z}_2^n$. We also study the standard monomials with respect to the lexicographical ordering for these ideals and derive a distribution result.

Abstract:
We prove that a certain cohomological residue associated to an ideal of pure dimension is annihilated exactly by the ideal. The cohomological residue is quite explicit and generalizes the classical local Grothendieck residue and the cohomological residue of Passare.

Abstract:
We prove a global uniform Artin-Rees lemma type theorem for sections of ample line bundles over smooth projective varieties. This result is used to prove an Artin-Rees lemma for the polynomial ring with uniform degree bounds. The proof is based on multidimensional residue calculus.

Abstract:
We calculate the second order derivatives of the Ronkin function in the case of an affine linear polynomial in three variables and give an expression of them in terms of complete elliptic integrals and hypergeometric functions. This gives a semi-explicit expression of the associated Monge-Amp\`ere measure, the Ronkin measure.

Abstract:
We give a new algorithm for merging sorted lists of monomials. Together with a projection technique we obtain a new complexity bound for the BM-algorithm.