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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 140681 matches for " Jenny K. Gustafsson "
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Mucus Properties and Goblet Cell Quantification in Mouse, Rat and Human Ileal Peyer's Patches
Anna Ermund, Jenny K. Gustafsson, Gunnar C. Hansson, ?sa V. Keita
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083688
Abstract: Peyer's patches (PPs) are collections of lymphoid follicles in the small intestine, responsible for scanning the intestinal content for foreign antigens such as soluble molecules, particulate matter as well as intact bacteria and viruses. The immune cells of the patch are separated from the intestinal lumen by a single layer of epithelial cells, the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). This epithelium covers the dome of the follicle and contains enterocyte-like cells and M cells, which are particularly specialized in taking up antigens from the gut. However, the presence and number of goblet cells as well as the presence of mucus on top of the FAE is controversial. When mouse ileal PPs were mounted in a horizontal Ussing-type chamber, we could observe a continuous mucus layer at mounting and new, easily removable mucus was released from the villi on the patch upon stimulation. Confocal imaging using fluorescent beads revealed a penetrable mucus layer covering the domes. Furthermore, immunostaining of FAE from mice, rats and humans with a specific antibody against the main component of intestinal mucus, the MUC2 mucin, clearly identify mucin-containing goblet cells. Transmission electron micrographs further support the identification of mucus releasing goblet cells on the domes of PPs in these species.
Bacteria Penetrate the Inner Mucus Layer before Inflammation in the Dextran Sulfate Colitis Model
Malin E. V. Johansson,Jenny K. Gustafsson,Karolina E. Sj?berg,Joel Petersson,Lena Holm,Henrik Sj?vall,Gunnar C. Hansson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012238
Abstract: Protection of the large intestine with its enormous amount of commensal bacteria is a challenge that became easier to understand when we recently could describe that colon has an inner attached mucus layer devoid of bacteria (Johansson et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 15064–15069). The bacteria are thus kept at a distance from the epithelial cells and lack of this layer, as in Muc2-null mice, allow bacteria to contact the epithelium. This causes colitis and later on colon cancer, similar to the human disease Ulcerative Colitis, a disease that still lacks a pathogenetic explanation. Dextran Sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water is the most widely used animal model for experimental colitis. In this model, the inflammation is observed after 3–5 days, but early events explaining why DSS causes this has not been described.
Modified-Chitosan/siRNA Nanoparticles Downregulate Cellular CDX2 Expression and Cross the Gastric Mucus Barrier
Ana Sadio, Jenny K. Gustafsson, Bruno Pereira, Carla Pereira Gomes, Gunnar C. Hansson, Leonor David, Ana Paula Pêgo, Raquel Almeida
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099449
Abstract: Development of effective non-viral vectors is of crucial importance in the implementation of RNA interference in clinical routine. The localized delivery of siRNAs to the gastrointestinal mucosa is highly desired but faces specific problems such as the stability in gastric acidity conditions and the presence of the mucus barrier. CDX2 is a transcription factor critical for intestinal differentiation being involved in the initiation and maintenance of gastrointestinal diseases. Specifically, it is the trigger of gastric intestinal metaplasia which is a precursor lesion of gastric cancer. Its expression is also altered in colorectal cancer, where it may constitute a lineage-survival oncogene. Our main objective was to develop a nanoparticle-delivery system of siRNA targeting CDX2 using modified chitosan as a vector. CDX2 expression was assessed in gastric carcinoma cell lines and nanoparticles behaviour in gastrointestinal mucus was tested in mouse explants. We show that imidazole-modified chitosan and trimethylchitosan/siRNA nanoparticles are able to downregulate CDX2 expression and overpass the gastric mucus layer but not colonic mucus. This system might constitute a potential therapeutic approach to treat CDX2-dependent gastric lesions.
Single- and double-stranded DNA binding proteins act in concert to conserve a telomeric DNA core sequence
Jenny Rhodin Eds?, Cecilia Gustafsson, Marita Cohn
Genome Integrity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2041-9414-2-2
Abstract: We found that the Saccharomyces castellii protein Rap1, a negative regulator of telomere length, binds a 12-mer minimal binding site (MBS) within the double-stranded telomeric DNA. The sequence specificity is dependent on the interaction with two 5 nucleotide motifs, having a 6 nucleotide centre-to-centre spacing. The isolated DNA-binding domain binds the same MBS and retains the same motif binding characteristics as the full-length Rap1 protein. However, it shows some deviations in the degree of sequence-specific dependence in some nucleotide positions. Intriguingly, the positions of most importance for the sequence-specific binding of the full-length Rap1 protein coincide with 3 of the 4 nucleotides utilized by the 3' overhang binding protein Cdc13. These nucleotides are very well conserved within the otherwise highly divergent telomeric sequences of yeasts.Rap1 and Cdc13 are two very distinct types of DNA-binding proteins with highly separate functions. They interact with the double-stranded vs. the single-stranded telomeric DNA via significantly different types of DNA-binding domain structures. However, we show that they are dependent on coinciding nucleotide positions for their sequence-specific binding to telomeric sequences. Thus, we conclude that during the molecular evolution they act together to preserve a core sequence of the telomeric DNA.The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes form specialized chromatin structures called telomeres, which protect the chromosome ends from being degraded or recognized as double-strand breaks by the DNA damage response pathway. The assembly of the protective telomere cap structure is nucleated by the sequence-specific proteins binding to the double-stranded telomeric DNA and the single-stranded 3'-overhang, respectively. In addition to the shielding and protective role, the telomere binding proteins take part in a molecular mechanism which regulates the telomere to a species-specific length. In budding yeast, telomere length hom
Dynamic Changes in Mucus Thickness and Ion Secretion during Citrobacter rodentium Infection and Clearance
Jenny K. Gustafsson, Nazanin Navabi, Ana M. Rodriguez-Pi?eiro, Ala H. A. Alomran, Pushpa Premaratne, Harvey R. Fernandez, Debashish Banerjee, Henrik Sj?vall, Gunnar C. Hansson, Sara K. Lindén
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084430
Abstract: Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing pathogen used as a murine model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The mucus layers are a complex matrix of molecules, and mucus swelling, hydration and permeability are affected by many factors, including ion composition. Here, we used the C. rodentium model to investigate mucus dynamics during infection. By measuring the mucus layer thickness in tissue explants during infection, we demonstrated that the thickness changes dynamically during the course of infection and that its thickest stage coincides with the start of a decrease of bacterial density at day 14 after infection. Although quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that mucin mRNA increases during early infection, the increased mucus layer thickness late in infection was not explained by increased mRNA levels. Proteomic analysis of mucus did not demonstrate the appearance of additional mucins, but revealed an increased number of proteins involved in defense responses. Ussing chamber-based electrical measurements demonstrated that ion secretion was dynamically altered during the infection phases. Furthermore, the bicarbonate ion channel Bestrophin-2 mRNA nominally increased, whereas the Cftr mRNA decreased during the late infection clearance phase. Microscopy of Muc2 immunostained tissues suggested that the inner striated mucus layer present in the healthy colon was scarce during the time point of most severe infection (10 days post infection), but then expanded, albeit with a less structured appearance, during the expulsion phase. Together with previously published literature, the data implies a model for clearance where a change in secretion allows reformation of the mucus layer, displacing the pathogen to the outer mucus layer, where it is then outcompeted by the returning commensal flora. In conclusion, mucus and ion secretion are dynamically altered during the C. rodentium infection cycle.
The r-Process Enriched Low Metallicity Giant HD 115444
Jenny Westin,Christopher Sneden,Bengt Gustafsson,John J. Cowan
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308407
Abstract: New high resolution, very high signal-to-noise spectra of ultra-metal-poor (UMP) giant stars HD 115444 and HD 122563 have been gathered with the High-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer of the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Telescope. With these spectra, line identification and model atmosphere analyses have been conducted, emphasizing the neutron-capture elements. Twenty elements with Z > 30 have been identified in the spectrum of HD 115444. This star is known to have overabundances of the neutron-capture elements, but it has lacked a detailed analysis necessary to compare with nucleosynthesis predictions. The new study features a line-by-line differential abundance comparison of HD 115444 with the bright, well-studied halo giant HD 122563. For HD 115444, the overall metallicity is [Fe/H]~ -3.0. The abundances of the light and iron-peak elements generally show the same pattern as other UMP stars (e.g. overdeficiencies of manganese and chromium, overabundances of cobalt), but the differential analysis indicates several nucleosynthesis signatures that are unique to each star.
Factors Associated to Non-Attendance to Dental Care among Adolescents—Suggesting a Model  [PDF]
Annika Gustafsson, Carina Persson, Carina K?llest?l
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.913157
Abstract: Background: Understanding why adolescents miss dental appointments is central to promoting people’s oral health into adulthood. Studies on non-attendant adolescents are rare. Method: Using information from a population-based survey of schoolchildren in Örebro County, Sweden, we aimed to find factors associated with adolescents’ dental non-attendance and to suggest a risk-factor model for non-attendance. The 2014 survey of all pupils in three grades (~ages 13, 15, and 17) in the county (N = 7399) had a response rate of 80%. The questionnaire asked 67 or 86 questions (depending on grade) on five components: socioeconomic conditions, quality of life, social relations, lifestyle and health (with two specific questions on dental care and oral health), social cohesion and social capital. Using a model based on risk factors identified in the literature, we used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and logistic regressions to find associations between dental attendance and potential risk factors. Results: Youth were non-attendant (n = 171) and attendant (n = 4236). Strong associations were found between non-attendance being a boy, being born outside Sweden, and living with parents not in the labor market. Health and health behaviors such as consuming sweet drinks or foods every day and being overweight were also associated with non-attendance. A model for risk of non-attendance based on variables significant in the analysis is presented. Conclusions: This study shows a strong association between non-attendant behavior and sociodemographic factors and health behavior. It also adds knowledge of the increased vulnerability to non-attendance in adolescents having at least one disability and/or experience of critical life.
Coexistence of two neurocutaneous syndromes: Tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito
Muhammed K,Mathew Jenny
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2007,
Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and hypomelanosis of Ito (HI) are two uncommon neurocutaneous syndromes and their coexistence is extremely rare. An epileptic child presented with progressively increasing multiple hypopigmented macules arranged in a linear and whorled pattern along the lines of Blaschko over the trunk and limbs, characteristic of HI. He also had facial angiofibromas, ash-leaf and confetti macules and shagreen patches. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed cortical tubers and subependymal nodules; which are diagnostic of TSC. The TSC defining loci have been mapped to Chromosome 9q34 (TSC1) and 16 pl3.3 (TSC2). There is no common genetic background for HI, but mosaicism of 9q33 locus has been documented. As per our knowledge, this is the second case of association of TSC with HI in a four-year-old child.
Rebecca Pates, Daniel Schmidt: Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.
Jenny Künkel
querelles-net , 2009,
Abstract: Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universit t Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbest nde lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials w ren wünschenswert gewesen. The publication stemming from the research project “Governing Prostitution” at the University of Leipzig approaches the question as to which problems of definition, categorization, and inventories of knowledge local administrators in Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic use as a basis for regulating prostitution. The study shows that law not only implements partially autonomous governing acts but also produces them. The monograph enters into uncharted territory with its local focus on the regulation of prostitution as its subject and its state-based ethnographical approach. A little more information as to methodology as well as a more explicit take on the theoretical concepts in the format of the empirical materials would have been desirable.
The nature of the circumstellar CO_2 emission from M giants
N. Ryde,K. Eriksson,B. Gustafsson
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: The 13-16 um region observed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) of several ABG stars are discussed. We present and analyse spectra of seven M giants which show carbon dioxide features. To explain the features of the bands, we suggest they originate from two different circumstellar layers, one being a warm and high density layer close to the star, possibly making the 15 um band optically thick, and the other being a large, cold and optically thin layer extending far out in the wind. This could explain the difference in temperatures of the different bands found in the analysis of the spectra and the number of molecules needed for the emission. It is demonstrated that in spite of the bands probably not being formed in vibrational LTE, the temperatures can be estimated from the widths of the bands.
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