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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10313 matches for " Jenny Gu "
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Do Credit Rating Agencies Sacrifice Timeliness by Pursuing Rating Stability? Evidence from Equity Market Reactions to CreditWatch Events  [PDF]
Jenny Gu, Jeffrey S. Jones, Pu Liu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.45042

In this paper we examine how well CreditWatch is used by credit rating agencies to balance two conflicting goals: rating timeliness and rating stability. Examining equity market reactions around CreditWatch events in 2002-2005, we find evidence that while CreditWatch has improved rating timeliness, its intended purpose has not been completely achieved. Equity prices start to change days before companies are listed on CreditWatch and abnormal equity returns of firms prior to being listed on CreditWatch are effective predictors of the ultimate change in ratings. The findings in the study suggest that in the pursuit of rating stability, rating agencies may have sacrificed rating timeliness.

The Time Decay of Bond Premium and Discount—An Analysis of the Time Passage Effect on Bond Prices  [PDF]
Jorge Brusa, Jenny Gu, Grace Yaru Liu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.45043

In this paper, we show that the price of a premium bond and the price of a discount bond will both move toward face value at an increasing rate as the bonds approach maturity. We present a mathematical proof to show that the decline in premium and discount decline over time, to be referred to as time decay, accelerates as time passes by. We also provide numerical examples and graphical representations to illustrate the time passage effect on bond prices and discuss the implications of the findings to bond investor and asset managers in light of the quantitative easing policies taken by central banks after the 2008 financial crisis.

Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students
Jenny Gu,Philip E Bourne
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030229
Identifying allosteric fluctuation transitions between different protein conformational states as applied to Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2
Jenny Gu, Philip E Bourne
BMC Bioinformatics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-8-45
Abstract: TDA and PIVET successfully identified select residues that are responsible for conformation specific regional fluctuation in the activation cycle of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2). The detected local changes in protein flexibility have been experimentally confirmed to be essential for the regulation and function of the kinase. The methodologies also highlighted possible errors in previous molecular dynamic simulations that need to be resolved in order to understand this key player in cell cycle regulation. Finally, the use of entropy compensation as a possible allosteric mechanism for protein function is reported for CDK2.The methodologies embodied in TDA and PIVET provide a quick approach to identify local fluctuation change important for protein function and residue contacts that contributes to these changes. Further, these approaches can be used to check for possible errors in protein dynamic simulations and have the potential to facilitate a better understanding of the contribution of entropy to protein allostery and function.The traditional view of allostery has been redefined as a consequence of an observed shift in protein conformational preference [1-3] upon allosteric interaction largely influenced by a select set of key residues. This is evidenced through an examination of dihydrofolate reductase using COREX[4], an ensemble-based computational model that generates all probable conformational states adopted by the protein thus revealing local stabilizing and destabilizing regions that facilitate conformational shifts. In another example, the conformational state preference of guanine nucleotide binding proteins impacts the preference for their corresponding binding partners[5,6]. In both cases, it has been found that a select set of key residues has a large impact on conformational preference.With this expanded view of allostery, the model allows for the consideration of other contributing factors and possible mechanisms such as entropy that was initially
Wiggle—Predicting Functionally Flexible Regions from Primary Sequence
Jenny Gu ,Michael Gribskov,Philip E Bourne
PLOS Computational Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020090
Abstract: The Wiggle series are support vector machine–based predictors that identify regions of functional flexibility using only protein sequence information. Functionally flexible regions are defined as regions that can adopt different conformational states and are assumed to be necessary for bioactivity. Many advances have been made in understanding the relationship between protein sequence and structure. This work contributes to those efforts by making strides to understand the relationship between protein sequence and flexibility. A coarse-grained protein dynamic modeling approach was used to generate the dataset required for support vector machine training. We define our regions of interest based on the participation of residues in correlated large-scale fluctuations. Even with this structure-based approach to computationally define regions of functional flexibility, predictors successfully extract sequence-flexibility relationships that have been experimentally confirmed to be functionally important. Thus, a sequence-based tool to identify flexible regions important for protein function has been created. The ability to identify functional flexibility using a sequence based approach complements structure-based definitions and will be especially useful for the large majority of proteins with unknown structures. The methodology offers promise to identify structural genomics targets amenable to crystallization and the possibility to engineer more flexible or rigid regions within proteins to modify their bioactivity.
Profile of Cognitive Complaints in Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Jenny Gu,Corinne E. Fischer,Gustavo Saposnik,Tom A. Schweizer
ISRN Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/865827
Abstract: Objective. Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) is differentiated from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by the presence of vascular events such as stroke or small vessel disease. Typically, MCI and VaMCI patients present with subjective complaints regarding cognition; however, little is known about the specific nature of these complaints. We aimed to create a profile of subjective cognitive complaints in MCI and VaMCI patients with similar levels of objective cognitive performance. Methods. Twenty MCI and twenty VaMCI patients were recruited from a Memory Disorders Clinic in Toronto. Subjective cognitive complaints were assessed and categorized using the Neuropsychological Impairment Scale. Results. MCI and VaMCI patients achieved similar scores on measures of objective cognitive function ( ). However, the VaMCI group had more subjective complaints than the MCI group ( ), particularly in the critical items, cognitive efficiency, memory, and verbal learning domains of the Neuropsychological Impairment Scale. Conclusions. Our findings support the idea that VaMCI and MCI differ in their clinical profiles, independent of neuroimaging. VaMCI patients have significantly more subjective cognitive complaints and may be exhibiting particular deficits in memory, verbal learning, and cognitive efficiency. Our findings promote the need for further research into VaMCI-specific cognitive deficits. 1. Introduction As adults age, it is common for cognitive problems to arise. Subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) are quite prevalent among older adults, with some estimates suggesting that between 25% and 50% of all older adults have self-perceived memory impairment [1, 2]. In clinical practice, it is often difficult to assess the veracity and severity of subjective cognitive complaints, primarily because such complaints vary widely from individual to individual. As a result, clinicians and caregivers perhaps do not consider subjective complaints to have the same weight as objective findings. However, studies have shown that subjective complaints may be valid indicators of current and future cognitive impairment. A recent study by Amariglio and colleagues showed that certain subjective complaints, such as “I have trouble finding my way around familiar streets,” are correlated with impairment in delayed recall, naming, and semantic fluency [3]. A review conducted by Jonker and colleagues showed that memory complaints may be predictive of dementia or Alzheimer’s disease onset within two to four years, especially in individuals with a diagnosis of mild cognitive
Short Report—The MDT Speed Date  [PDF]
Jenny Blythe
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.98093
Abstract: The importance of introducing both interprofessional education (IPE) and familiarity with the wider multidisciplinary team (MDT) roles cannot be underestimated in the undergraduate medical curriculum. This short report outlines an innovative method of teaching medical students about the role of the MDT in holistic patient management by way of a simulation “speed-date” and MDT meeting.
The Great Lapse: Climate Change, Water Resources and Economic Risks in the Great Lakes  [PDF]
Jenny Kehl
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.1011065
Abstract: The striking vastness of the world’s largest surface freshwater resource, the Laurentian Great Lakes, has generated the fallacy that they are not highly vulnerable to climate change. This fallacy has created a great lapse in our research and understanding of the effects of climate change on the Great Lakes, which are approaching critical environmental thresholds and jeopardizing ecosystem services. This article takes the novel approach of correcting the disconnect between the perception of vastness and the reality of vulnerability to climate change in the Great Lakes, and takes an additional novel step to link the water risks with the economic risks. The primary purpose is to demonstrate the interdependence of the freshwater ecosystem services affected by climate change with the economies that are highly dependent on those freshwater services in the Great Lakes region. Although many believe that environmental science or ethical arguments should be sufficient to warrant action on climate change, evidence shows that policy-makers are not compelled to generate advances unless there are strong economic components. This article highlights the leading edge of climate science for the Great Lakes, having conducted 32 in depth interviews with experts in microbiology, ecology, and limnology, among others, but it also adds substantively to previous work by providing economic evidence of water risks in the agricultural sector and energy sector, which constitute over $6 trillion in value and jobs that are specifically dependent on lakes waters. The article concludes by articulating three specific conclusions: the economic viability of the agricultural sector and the energy sector are jeopardized by loss of federal funding for climate change adaptation in the water sector; the existing policies such as between sectors such as the Farm Bill and Energy Future Bill are mal-aligned and should be aligned with the water sector; and negative environmental externalities including factors that exacerbate climate change should be incorporated into the true cost of water so we can more accurately conduct ecosystem valuation and, thus, address the true economic and environmental cost of climate change on the Great Lakes and our greatest water resources. This paper has not previously been published.
The Role of Cytokines which Signal through the Common γ Chain Cytokine Receptor in the Reversal of HIV Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Anergy
Xiao Xiao Jenny Gu, Feng Yun Yue, Colin M. Kovacs, Mario A. Ostrowski
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000300
Abstract: Background HIV specific T cells are putatively anergic in vivo. IL-2, a member of a class of cytokines that binds to receptors containing the common gamma chain (γc) has been shown to reverse anergy. We examined the role of γc cytokines in reversing HIV specific T cell anergy. Methods PBMC from untreated HIV-infected individuals were briefly exposed to a panel of γc cytokines, and frequencies of gag specific T cells were enumerated by intracellular IFN-γ flow cytometry. Results Of the γc cytokines, brief exposure to IL-2, IL-15, or combined IL-15/IL-7 significantly enhanced (range 2–7 fold) the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFN-γ responses to HIV gag, with IL-15 giving the greatest enhancement. The effects of cytokines were not due to enhanced proliferation of pre-existing antigen specific cells, but were due to a combination of enhanced cytokine production from antigen specific T cells plus activation of non-epitope specific T cells. Conclusions These observations support the notion that a significant number of HIV specific T cells are circulating in an anergic state. IL-2, IL-7 and particularly IL-15 as an immune modulator to reverse HIV-1 specific T cell anergy should be investigated, with the caveat that non-specific activation of T cells may also be induced.
Empirical Verification of Swanson’s Caring Processes Found in Nursing Actions: Systematic Review  [PDF]
Mary Kalfoss, Jenny Owe
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.511104
Abstract: Caring has long been recognized as central to nursing and is increasingly posited as a core concept although developing a theoretical description of caring which is adequate in the 21st. century continues to be a difficult task for nursing scholars. Consequently, verifying existing theoretical structures of caring remains an ongoing challenge. The aim of this article is to provide empirical verification of the caring processes of “knowing,” “being with,” “doing for,” “enabling” and “maintaining belief” from Swanson’s Middle Range Caring Theory based on the categorization of nursing actions from a systematic literature review on care. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in the fields of nursing sciences, medicine and psychology. Purposeful sampling was carried out covering a period from 2003-2013. The final sample included 25 articles. Results: Major themes of nursing actions included “knowing” which consisted of centering, nurturing, informed understanding, assessment skills, communication and respect for individual differences. “Being with” was characterized by intimate relationship, connecting, presencing, emotional adaptability awareness of self/other and decentering. “Doing for” included competence, knowledge, professional/technical skills, helping actions, anticipatory, multidisciplinary and preserving dignity. “Enabling” was characterized by self care, commitment, complexity of care, appropriate communication, information/education, sharing power, enabling choice and ongoing validation. Finally, “maintaining belief” was characterized by spiritual being, humanistic view, harmonious balance, hope, love, and compassion, meaning, and religious and spiritual orientation. Conclusion: Empirical verification was shown for the caring processes described in Swanson’s Caring Theory grounded in concrete nursing actions.
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