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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6759 matches for " Jennifer Shane "
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Thrombin increases inflammatory cytokine and angiogenic growth factor secretion in human adipose cells in vitro
Jennifer L Strande, Shane A Phillips
Journal of Inflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-6-4
Abstract: Human adipose tissue, isolated preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes were used in this study. PAR1 and PAR4 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis in both adipose tissue and adipose microvessels. In separate studies, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-10, FGF-2, VEGF, and PDGF production were measured from adipose tissue (n = 5), adipocytes (n = 5), and preadipocytes (n = 3) supernatants with and without thrombin (1 or 10 U/ml; 24 hrs) treatment.Thrombin increased cytokine secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α and growth factor secretion of VEGF from adipocytes along with MCP-1 and VEGF from preadipocytes. The direct thrombin inhibitor lepirudin given in conjunction with thrombin prevented the thrombin-mediated increase in cytokine and growth factor secretion.Here we show that thrombin PAR1 and PAR4 receptors are present and that thrombin stimulates inflammatory cytokine generation and growth factor release in human adipose tissue and cells in vitro. These data suggest that thrombin may represent a molecular link between obesity and associated inflammation.Protease-Activated Receptors (PAR) belongs to a small family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GCPR) whose unique mechanism of action requires proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminus. This cleavage exposes a tethered ligand which then transactivates the receptor [1,2]. Serine proteases including thrombin and other coagulation factors such as Factor (F) Xa and the Tissue Factor (TF):FVIIa complex activate PAR1 and/or PAR4 [3,4]. PARs have been found to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cells including platelets, endothelial cells, leukocytes, and fibroblasts and modulate a variety of responses to thrombin including fibrosis, thrombosis, and inflammation [3].PAR activation in non-adipose tissue induces the hallmarks of inflammation, including up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules, enhanced vascular permeability and leukocyte extravasa
Estimating large complex projects
Schexnayder,Cliff; Molenaar,Keith; Shane,Jennifer;
Revista ingeniería de construcción , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-50732007000200003
Abstract: managing large capital construction projects requires the coordination of a multitude of human, organizational, technical, and natural resources. quite often, the engineering and construction complexities of such projects are overshadowed by economic, societal, and political challenges. the ramifications and effects, which result from differences between early project cost estimates and the bid price or the final project cost, are significant. over the time span between the initiation of a project and the completion of construction many factors influence a project's final costs. this time span is normally several years in duration but for highly complex and technologically challenging projects, project duration can easily exceed a decade. over that period, changes to the project scope often occur. the subject here is a presentation of strategies that support realistic cost estimating. through literature review and interviews with transportation agencies in the u.s. and internationally the authors developed a database of the factors that are the root causes of cost estimation problems
Estimating large complex projects Estimando proyectos grandes y complejos
Cliff Schexnayder,Keith Molenaar,Jennifer Shane
Revista ingeniería de construcción , 2007,
Abstract: Managing large capital construction projects requires the coordination of a multitude of human, organizational, technical, and natural resources. Quite often, the engineering and construction complexities of such projects are overshadowed by economic, societal, and political challenges. The ramifications and effects, which result from differences between early project cost estimates and the bid price or the final project cost, are significant. Over the time span between the initiation of a project and the completion of construction many factors influence a project's final costs. This time span is normally several years in duration but for highly complex and technologically challenging projects, project duration can easily exceed a decade. Over that period, changes to the project scope often occur. The subject here is a presentation of strategies that support realistic cost estimating. Through literature review and interviews with transportation agencies in the U.S. and internationally the authors developed a database of the factors that are the root causes of cost estimation problems Gestionar proyectos de construcción de grandes capitales requiere de la coordinación de una multitud de recursos humanos, organizacionales, técnicos y naturales. Frecuentemente, las complejidades del dise o y construcción de esos grandes proyectos son tapadas por sus desafíos económicos, políticos y sociales. Las ramificaciones y efectos que resultan de las diferencias entre la estimación de costo inicial, el costo de la propuesta adjudicada y el costo final del proyecto son significativas. Hay numerosos factores que inciden en el costo final del proyecto entre su inicio y finalización. La duración es generalmente de varios a os y puede incluso superar la década para aquellos especialmente complejos y desafiantes. En ese período de tiempo, cambios en los alcances del proyecto cambian frecuentemente. El tópico del presente artículo es mostrar estrategias para apoyar la estimación realista de costos. A través de investigación bibliográfica y entrevistas con agencias de transporte de EE.UU. y otros países, los autores desarrollaron y presentan una base de datos con los factores clave que producen problemas en la estimación de costos
Biomaterial Constructs for Delivery of Multiple Therapeutic Genes: A Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Efficacy Using Molecular Beacons
Jennifer C. Alexander, Shane Browne, Abhay Pandit, Yury Rochev
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065749
Abstract: Gene therapy is emerging as a potential therapeutic approach for cardiovascular pathogenesis. An appropriate therapy may require multiple genes to enhance therapeutic outcome by modulating inflammatory response and angiogenesis in a controlled and time-dependent manner. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the spatiotemporal efficacy of a dual-gene therapy model based on 3D collagen scaffolds loaded with the therapeutic genes interleukin 10 (IL-10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a promoter of angiogenesis. A collagen-based scaffold loaded with plasmid IL-10 polyplexes and plasmid eNOS polyplexes encapsulated into microspheres was used to transfect HUVECs and HMSCs cells.The therapeutic efficacy of the system was monitored at 2, 7 and 14 days for eNOS and IL-10 mRNA expression using RT-PCR and live cell imaging molecular beacon technology. The dual gene releasing collagen-based scaffold provided both sustained and delayed release of functional polyplexes in vitro over a 14 day period which was corroborated with variation in expression levels seen using RT-PCR and MB imaging. Maximum fold increases in IL-10 mRNA and eNOS mRNA expression levels occurred at day 7 in HMSCs and HUVECs. However, IL-10 mRNA expression levels seemed dependent on frequency of media changes and/or ease of transfection of the cell type. It was demonstrated that molecular beacons are able to monitor changes in mRNA levels at various time points, in the presence of a 3D scaffolding gene carrier system and the results complemented those of RT-PCR.
Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand
Dennis P. Gordon,Jennifer Beaumont,Alison MacDiarmid,Donald A. Robertson,Shane T. Ahyong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010905
Abstract: The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30° of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research.
A Prodrug Approach to the Use of Coumarins as Potential Therapeutics for Superficial Mycoses
Derry K. Mercer, Jennifer Robertson, Kristine Wright, Lorna Miller, Shane Smith, Colin S. Stewart, Deborah A. O′Neil
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080760
Abstract: Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20–25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide), inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l) and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones.
Entre lo indio, lo negro y lo incaico: la jerarquía espacial de la diferencia en el Perú multicultural
Greene,Shane;
Tabula Rasa , 2010,
Abstract: this article examines the trials and tribulations of a recent state-led program of afroindigenous multiculturalism in peru within a much broader intellectual history of the nation, its regions, and the ideologies that govern them. in contrast to broadly comparative accounts of afro-descendant and indigenous politics at the regional latin american level that emphasize the contrast of "race" vs. "culture", i argue for closer attention to the ways in which afro-indigenous multiculturalisms are peruvianized in the process of global-cumregional expansion. the peruvian case is particularly interesting because of the way the state separates out its multicultural subjects by region (recognizing specifically andeans, amazonians, and afro-peruvians who are implicitly "coastal"). i also analyze how the nation's long-standing fascination with the figure of the "returning inca" affords andeans a peculiarly "elite" indigenous status within the multicultural imagination. the recurring historical influence of what i term the effects of the "inca slot" suggest possibilities for a possible point of comparison for all those defined as not-andean / not-inca in the process, particularly afro-peruvians and indigenous amazonians in this context.
ENTRE LO INDIO, LO NEGRO Y LO INCAICO: LA JERARQUíA ESPACIAL DE LA DIFERENCIA EN EL PERú MULTICULTURAL
Shane Greene
Tabula Rasa , 2010,
Abstract: Este artículo examina los problemas encontrados por un programa estatal sobre multiculturalismo afro-indígena en Perú dentro del marco de la historia intelectual de la nación, sus regiones, y las ideologías que las gobiernan. En vez de presentar un recuento comparativo sobre las políticas aplicadas a afro-descendientes e indígenas a nivel regional Latinoamericano enfatizando raza versus cultura arguyo que se debe prestar más atención a las formas en las que el multiculturalismo afro-indígena se peruaniza en el proceso de la expansión global/regional. El caso peruano es particularmente interesante por la forma en la que el Estado separa sus sujetos multiculturales por región (reconociendo los andinos, amazónicos, y afroperuanos que son implícitamente de la costa). También analizo cómo la larga fascinación de la nación con la figura del inca permite que los andinos tengan un estatus de elite indígena dentro de la imaginación multicultural. La influencia histórica de lo que llamo el apartado inca sugiere posibilidades para poder comparar todos aquellos sujetos definidos como no andinos / no incas, y particularmente para los afroperuanos e indígenas amazónicos en este contexto.
Public Attitudes to GM Technology and Public Policy Comments
Shane Morris
Ecology and Society , 2000,
Abstract:
Economic fables
Shane Moran
Kronos (Bellville) , 2010,
Abstract: When the aura of primitive communities involves closeness to nature and egalitarianism it is time to reflect upon the source of this interpretation. What story is being told, and what socio-political moral is being drawn from the image of the /Xam garnered from the Bleek and Lloyd archive? What values are being naturalised in an interpretation that foregrounds sympathy as integral to the process of interpretation? What kind of community are author, reader and subject founding?
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