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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 228891 matches for " Jennifer R. Whitson "
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Rule Making and Rule Breaking: Game Development and the Governance of Emergent Behaviour
Jennifer R. Whitson
Fibreculture Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Discussions of ‘control’ in games often center on players and their myriad attempts to push back upon the systems that seek to constrain them. The fact that players resist the constraints imposed upon them is not surprising, nor is it surprising that counterplay and control are such rich topics for game studies academics. In this article, I argue that players are invited by games to bend the rules. It is in the very nature of play to find the movement between the rules, and for many players the ‘fun’ in play is the inherent challenge of attempting to master, defeat, or remake games’ formal structures. These rationalities of play preclude blind obedience to the rules and have distinct implications for how games are governed. While there have been numerous studies of players who bend or break the rules (Consalvo, 2007; Foo and Koivisto, 2004; Dibbell, 1998; Kolko and Reid, 1998; Williams, 2006; Mnookin, 1997) and players who alter and re-make the rules in their role of co-producers (Sotamaa, 2009; Kücklich, 2005; Humphreys, 2005; Taylor, 2006b), there is little research on game development companies and their attempts to harness these rationalities of play and uphold the rules beyond the reflexive writings of game designers themselves (Curtis, 1992; Morningstar and Farmer, 1991; Koster, 2002).
Urovysion? testing can lead to early identification of intravesical therapy failure in patients with high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
Whitson, Jared M.;Berry, Anna B.;Carroll, Peter R.;Konety, Badrinath R.;
International braz j urol , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382009000600005
Abstract: purpose: in this study, we investigated the ability of urovysion? to assess response to intravesical therapy in patients with high risk superficial bladder tumors. materials and methods: we performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing intravesical therapy for high risk superficial bladder tumors. urine specimens were collected for urovysion? analysis before and immediately after a course of intravesical therapy. cytology and cystoscopy were performed six weeks after treatment, using either a positive cytology or visible abnormality on cystoscopy as a prompt for biopsy. the operating characteristics of the urovysion? test were then determined. results: 41 patients were identified in whom 47 cycles of induction and 41 cycles of maintenance intravesical therapy were given during the study period. this yielded a total of 88 treatment and evaluation cycles. median follow-up was 9 months per induction (range 1-21 months) and 13 months per patient (range 1-25 months). a total of 133 urine samples were collected for urovysion? of which 40 were positive. based upon standard clinical evaluation, 41 biopsies were performed which detected 20 recurrences. urovysion? testing performed immediately upon completion of therapy for the 41 patients undergoing biopsy yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85%, 61%, and 71%. conclusions: the use of urovysion? following intravesical therapy for high-risk superficial bladder tumors helps to identify patients at high risk of refractory or recurrent disease who should undergo immediate biopsy under anesthesia.
Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan
Lisa R. Whitson,Frini Karayanidis,Ross Fulham,Alexander Provost,Patricia T. Michie,Andrew Heathcote,Shulan Hsieh
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00383
Abstract: In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these “mixed” repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.
Neural correlates of focused attention in cognitively normal older adults  [PDF]
Jennifer R. Bowes, Patrick Stroman, Angeles Garcia
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2011.12003
Abstract: Focused attention (FA) is among the cognitive functions that decline with aging. The Stroop task was used to investigate the neural correlates underlying FA in cognitively normal older adults. Twenty-one participants underwent a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) verbal Stroop task paradigm. Colour words were printed in an incongruent ink colour. Series 1 consisted of four blocks “Read the word” followed by four blocks “Say the colour of the ink”; Series 2 alternated between the two conditions. Functional data were analyzed using SPM5 to detect anatomical areas with significant signal intensity differences between the conditions. Within-group analyses of the “Say the colour of the ink” minus “Read the word” contrast yielded significant activation in the left supplementary motor area, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral precentral gyrus, left insula and right superior frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, uncorrected). These results, using verbal responses, are consistent with previous manual modality Stroop-fMRI studies in older adults. Verbal responses may provide a more suitable modality for older adults and certain patient populations.
Neural correlates of focused attention in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease  [PDF]
Jennifer R. Bowes, Patrick Stroman, Angeles Garcia
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.24034
Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is characterized by an early and significant memory impairment, and progresses to affect other cognitive domains. Impairments in Focused Attention (FA) have been observed in patients diagnosed with mild AD. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Stroop paradigm with verbal responses was used to investigate the neural correlates of FA in AD patients. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with mild AD performed a verbal Stroop—fMRI paradigm. Colour words were printed in an incongruent ink colour. Series 1 consisted of four blocks “Read the word” followed by four blocks “Say the colour of the ink”; Series 2 alternated between the two conditions. Functional data were analyzed using SPM5 to detect anatomical areas with significant signal intensity differences between the conditions. Within-group analyses of the colour minus word contrast yielded significant activation in the following left hemisphere regions: precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area (p < 0.05, uncorrected). Relative to cognitively normal older adults who underwent the same experimental task, Stroop performance was significantly worse in AD patients. The fMRI task yielded similar activated brain regions between the two groups. The use of verbal responses in this novel fMRI Stroop task avoids the confusion and memorizing of button locations seen with the manual response modality, allowing the neural correlates of FA to be investigated in AD patients.
Fostering critical thinking skills: a strategy for enhancing evidence based wellness care
Jennifer R Jamison
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-13-19
Abstract: This paper describes a unit which prepares chiropractic students for the role of "wellness coaches". Emphasis is placed on providing students with exercises in critical thinking in an effort to prepare them for the challenge of interfacing with an increasingly evidence based health care system.This case study describes how health may be promoted and disease prevented through development of personalized wellness programs. As critical thinking is essential to the provision of evidence based wellness care, diverse learning opportunities for developing and refining critical thinking skills have been created. Three of the learning opportunities are an intrinsic component of the subject and, taken together, contributed over 50% of the final grade of the unit. They include a literature review, developing a client wellness contract and peer evaluation. In addition to these 3 compulsory exercises, students were also given an opportunity to develop their critical appraisal skills by undertaking voluntary self- and unit evaluation. Several opportunities for informal self-appraisal were offered in a structured self-study guide, while unit appraisal was undertaken by means of a questionnaire and group discussion at which the Head of School was present.Formal assessment showed all students capable of preparing a wellness program consistent with current thinking in contemporary health care. The small group of students who appraised the unit seemed to value the diversity of learning experiences provided. Opportunities for voluntary unit and self-appraisal were used to varying degrees.Unit evaluation provided useful feedback that led to substantial changes in unit structure.Students have demonstrated themselves capable of applying critical thinking in construction of evidence based wellness programs. With respect to unit design, selective use of learning opportunities highlighted the desirability of using obligatory learning opportunities to ensure exposure to core constructs while
Jucys-Murphy Elements and a Combinatorial Proof of an Identity of S. Kerov
Jennifer R. Galovich
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: Consider the elements of the group algebra CS_{n} given by R_{j}=Sigma_{i=1}^{j-1}(ij), for 2<=j<=n. Jucys [3 - 5] and Murphy[7] showed that these elements act diagonally on elements of S_{n} and gave explicit formulas for the diagonal entries. As requested by the late S. Kerov, we give a combinatorial proof of this work in case j=n and present several similar results which arise from these combinatorial methods.
The Separate Development of Children’s Listener and Speaker Behavior and the Intercept as Behavioral Metamorphosis  [PDF]
R. Douglas Greer, Peter Pohl, Lin Du, Jennifer Lee Moschella
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.713045
Abstract: The study of verbal behavior focuses on communicative functions of the speakers/producers as they affect the behavior of listeners/observers. Effects on the listener reinforce the speaker and the listener/observer benefits (i.e., is reinforced) from the behavior of the speaker/producer. The interlocking of, and exchange of, the speaker and listener behavior between individuals and within one’s own skin constitute bidirectional operants. These bidirectional operants are instances of social interactions and measures of social behavior. Evidence suggests that the act of listening, among other observing responses, is initially developmentally independent from speaker behavior. How they become joined parallels the biological phenomenon of metamorphosis. The succession of changes has been empirically identified as a succession of verbal behavior development cusps, which are described in their sequence biologically as a manifestation of functional metamorphosis. The onset of a cusp constitutes first instances of behavior and accompanying stimulus control that allows infants and children to contact parts of the environment for the first time resulting in their learning things impossible to learn before or learning faster. Cusps for the intercept of the speaker and listener lead to bidirectional operants and provide explanations for how children incidentally learn the names of things, become increasingly social, and make subsequent complex behavior possible. Many of the cusps identified in our research resulted from the missing behavior and stimulus control of children with autism. Once cusps were established, these children learned things they could not learn before, learned faster, and learned by contacting parts of the social environment they could not contact before. These findings led to a theory of verbal behavior development that point to the selection of bidirectional operants as behavioral phenotypes during functional metamorphosis, which has enhanced the survival of Homo sapiens through emergent symbolic skills for more effective collaboration between two or more individuals.
Long-term outcomes of a pseudo 360-degree trabeculotomy ab externo technique for congenital glaucoma at children's medical center
Saltzmann RM, Reinecke S, Lin X, Cavanagh HD, Whitson JT
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S29898
Abstract: ng-term outcomes of a pseudo 360-degree trabeculotomy ab externo technique for congenital glaucoma at children's medical center Review (1997) Total Article Views Authors: Saltzmann RM, Reinecke S, Lin X, Cavanagh HD, Whitson JT Published Date May 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 689 - 698 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S29898 Received: 12 January 2012 Accepted: 07 February 2012 Published: 09 May 2012 Robert M Saltzmann, Steven Reinecke, Xihui Lin, H Dwight Cavanagh, Jess T Whitson University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: To quantify the long-term outcomes of congenital glaucoma and surgical success rates following pseudo 360-degree trabeculotomy surgery at Children's Medical Center in Dallas. Patients and methods: An International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) database was utilized for a retrospective chart review. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 who underwent primary trabeculotomy with a pseudo 360-degree technique between June 1, 1992 and December 31, 2005 were studied. Results: Mean age at the time of trabeculotomy was 11.1 ± 3.0 months, with seven eyes operated on after 1 year of age. Mean follow-up was 85.1 ± 9.0 months. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) at the time of glaucoma diagnosis was 32.7 ± 1.1 mmHg, and final mean IOP for all eyes (after trabeculotomy and any additional surgery and/or glaucoma medications) was 17.9 ± 0.8 mmHg. With trabeculotomy and medication alone, mean final IOP was 19.9 ± 1.1 mmHg, with a mean drop in IOP of 12.5 ± 1.4 mmHg. Surgical success, defined by adequate IOP control, was achieved in 30 eyes (78.96%) at most recent follow-up. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated 5- and 10-year survival probabilities of 93.1% and 66.8%, respectively. Seventeen eyes (44.7% of all eyes) achieved complete success, meaning IOP control <21 mmHg without additional medical therapy. All seventeen had primary congenital glaucoma (PCG); no eyes with aphakic glaucoma (AG) or Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) achieved complete success. Seven eyes (18.4%) failed primary trabeculotomy. Mean time to failure was 46.9 ± 8.6 months. Eyes with SWS had a significantly higher failure rate (P = 0.009) and a 5.81 relative risk of failure (P = 0.026). Conclusions: Our long-term trabeculotomy success rates for congenital glaucoma compare favorably with existing reports in the literature. Eyes with AG and SWS may warrant consideration of alternative primary surgical methods, or closer postoperative surveillance.
Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics
Jennifer R. Prentice,Muhammad Anzar
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/146405
Abstract: The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect) and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling. 1. Introduction Many domestic breeds of livestock are experiencing a gradual diminishment of genetic diversity; therefore, it is in the interest of the international community to conserve the livestock genetics. Ideally populations are saved as live animals; however, this approach is expensive, and unless the breed can be used for production, it is not likely to succeed. Therefore, ex situ in vitro conservation strategies are developed to cryopreserve animal genetic resources in genome/gene banks to regenerate a particular population in future [1, 2]. Although significant progress has been made in both semen and embryo cryopreservation of several domestic species, oocytes are extremely sensitive to chilling, and to date a standardized procedure has not been established. Long-term storage of oocytes would develop of ova banks, permitting female genetic material to be stored unfertilized until an appropriate male germplasm is selected. Successful cryopreservation of oocytes would also preserve the genetic material from unexpectedly dead animals and facilitate many assisted reproductive technologies [3–5]. 2. Loss of Farm Animal Genetic Diversity In the last few decades, farm animal genetic diversity has rapidly declined, mainly due to changing market demands and intensification of agriculture. Agriculture is moving away from small production systems to large commercial systems, and as a result, selection goals and production environments are now very similar throughout the world. Modern reproductive technologies have allowed a large number of progeny to be produced from a single individual,and contemporary transport has enabled the distribution of germplasm
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