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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 213053 matches for " Jennifer L. Schacter "
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Estrogen Regulation of Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member Mcl-1 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells
Jennifer L. Schacter, Elizabeth S. Henson, Spencer B. Gibson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100364
Abstract: Estrogen is implicated as an important factor in stimulating breast cancer cell proliferation, and presence of estrogen receptor (ER) is an indication of a good prognosis in breast cancer patients. Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that is often over expressed in breast tumors, correlating with poor survival. In breast cancer, it was been previously shown that epidermal growth factor receptors up-regulate Mcl-1 but the role of estrogen in increasing Mcl-1 expression was unknown. In ERα positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75, estrogen treatment increased Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. In two ERα negative cell lines, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231, estrogen failed to increase in Mcl-1 protein expression. We found that ERα antagonists decreased estrogen mediated Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Upon knockdown of ERα, Mcl-1 mRNA expression after estrogen treatment was also decreased. We also found that ERα binds to the Mcl-1 promoter at a region upstream of the translation start site containing a half ERE site. Streptavidin-pull down assay showed that both ERα and transcription factor Sp1 bind to this region. These results suggest that estrogen is involved in regulating Mcl-1 expression specifically through a mechanism involving ERα.
Re-Imagining the Future: Repetition Decreases Hippocampal Involvement in Future Simulation
Valerie van Mulukom, Daniel L. Schacter, Michael C. Corballis, Donna Rose Addis
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069596
Abstract: Imagining or simulating future events has been shown to activate the anterior right hippocampus (RHC) more than remembering past events does. One fundamental difference between simulation and memory is that imagining future scenarios requires a more extensive constructive process than remembering past experiences does. Indeed, studies in which this constructive element is reduced or eliminated by “pre-imagining” events in a prior session do not report differential RHC activity during simulation. In this fMRI study, we examined the effects of repeatedly simulating an event on neural activity. During scanning, participants imagined 60 future events; each event was simulated three times. Activation in the RHC showed a significant linear decrease across repetitions, as did other neural regions typically associated with simulation. Importantly, such decreases in activation could not be explained by non-specific linear time-dependent effects, with no reductions in activity evident for the control task across similar time intervals. Moreover, the anterior RHC exhibited significant functional connectivity with the whole-brain network during the first, but not second and third simulations of future events. There was also evidence of a linear increase in activity across repetitions in right ventral precuneus, right posterior cingulate and left anterior prefrontal cortex, which may reflect source recognition and retrieval of internally generated contextual details. Overall, our findings demonstrate that repeatedly imagining future events has a decremental effect on activation of the hippocampus and many other regions engaged by the initial construction of the simulation, possibly reflecting the decreasing novelty of simulations across repetitions, and therefore is an important consideration in the design of future studies examining simulation.
Memories of the Future: New Insights into the Adaptive Value of Episodic Memory
Karl K. Szpunar,Donna Rose Addis,Victoria C. McLelland,Daniel L. Schacter
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00047
The Impact of Cervical Cancer Treatment on Sexual Function and Intimate Relationships: Is Anyone Listening?  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Hunter
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.48069

The purpose of this research was to describe women’s narrative accounts of the impact of cervical cancer treatment on their sexual function and intimate relationships, and to evaluate what changes in care and education are needed to enhance quality of life and intimacy after treatment. The research approach was a narrative design, using semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Narratives were examined within and across interviews, and thematic content analysis completed. The study was done in a gynecologic oncology clinic at a public hospital in the Midwest United States. The sample consisted of twelve women, ranging in age from 27 to 59, who had completed the cervical cancer treatment with chemo-radiation or radiation and surgery, and were now followed by their gynecologic oncologists. Across narratives, five major themes were identified, including unexpected physical complications, not “getting back to normal,” emotional pain and isolation, lack of available information, and inadequate health care provider response to treatment complications and sexual relationship problems. Women’s stories reveal that sex and intimacy issues for cervical cancer survivors remain within a culture of silence. In many situations, health professionals did not provide information that realistically prepared women and partners for probable consequences of treatment, did not assess sexual issues before or after treatment, did not recognize various symptoms as being complications of cancer treatment, did not make referrals, and/or recognized complications, but accepted them as “normal” and without solution. Ethical implications for health professionals and the need for education, communication, and the development of new lines of research are discussed.

Memory for Semantically Related and Unrelated Declarative Information: The Benefit of Sleep, the Cost of Wake
Jessica D. Payne, Matthew A. Tucker, Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen, Erin J. Wamsley, Matthew P. Walker, Daniel L. Schacter, Robert Stickgold
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033079
Abstract: Numerous studies have examined sleep's influence on a range of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory tasks, from text learning to spatial navigation. In this study, we examined the impact of sleep, wake, and time-of-day influences on the processing of declarative information with strong semantic links (semantically related word pairs) and information requiring the formation of novel associations (unrelated word pairs). Participants encoded a set of related or unrelated word pairs at either 9am or 9pm, and were then tested after an interval of 30 min, 12 hr, or 24 hr. The time of day at which subjects were trained had no effect on training performance or initial memory of either word pair type. At 12 hr retest, memory overall was superior following a night of sleep compared to a day of wakefulness. However, this performance difference was a result of a pronounced deterioration in memory for unrelated word pairs across wake; there was no sleep-wake difference for related word pairs. At 24 hr retest, with all subjects having received both a full night of sleep and a full day of wakefulness, we found that memory was superior when sleep occurred shortly after learning rather than following a full day of wakefulness. Lastly, we present evidence that the rate of deterioration across wakefulness was significantly diminished when a night of sleep preceded the wake period compared to when no sleep preceded wake, suggesting that sleep served to stabilize the memories against the deleterious effects of subsequent wakefulness. Overall, our results demonstrate that 1) the impact of 12 hr of waking interference on memory retention is strongly determined by word-pair type, 2) sleep is most beneficial to memory 24 hr later if it occurs shortly after learning, and 3) sleep does in fact stabilize declarative memories, diminishing the negative impact of subsequent wakefulness.
Numerical Solution of Differential Equations by Direct Taylor Expansion  [PDF]
Pirooz Mohazzabi, Jennifer L. Becker
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.53053
Abstract: A variation of the direct Taylor expansion algorithm is suggested and applied to several linear and nonlinear differential equations of interest in physics and engineering, and the results are compared with those obtained from other algorithms. It is shown that the suggested algorithm competes strongly with other existing algorithms, both in accuracy and ease of application, while demanding a shorter computation time.
Jealousy Induction Methods, Sex, and the Big-5 Personality Dimensions  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Weinstein, T. Joel Wade
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25080
Abstract: One-hundred and twenty five participants were administered an online survey to investigate: which type of cheating, emotional or sexual, is more likely to be used in an attempt to induce jealousy in a partner, which type of cheating is perceived as most effective for inducing jealousy, and whether or not the Big-5 personality dimensions are related to the choice of jealousy induction technique. Emotional cheating was hypothesized to be selected more often, and given a higher effectiveness rating, than physical cheating for inducing jealousy in a partner. Additionally, men were hypothesized to rate physical cheating as worse than emotional cheating while women were expected to rate emotional cheating as more hurtful. The results were partially consistent with the hypotheses. Emotional cheating was selected as the method to induce jealousy most often and was rated as the most effective way to induce jealousy. However, physical cheating was rated as more upsetting by both men and women. Additionally, Big-5 personality dimensions were not related to choice of jealousy induction method or reactions to physical or emotional cheating. The findings are discussed in relation to prior research.
Using the GLOBE Program to Educate Students on the Interdependence of Our Planet and People  [PDF]
Sherry S. Herron, Jennifer L. Robertson
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.44A005
We present how we have used GLOBE protocols and programs in a college undergraduate English course for science and non-science majors, Writing in the Sciences, and in a graduate-level field course for in-service teachers. Collecting land cover data and determining biomass in conjunction with a series of writing assignments allowed the English students to connect their work to research done in ecosystems throughout the world, and to specific environmental concerns such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and the impact of controlled burning on ecosystems. Teachers demonstrated increased knowledge of ecology, natural histories of various organisms, and awareness of environmental resources. A study conducted the following summer revealed that teachers valued the course and felt that their experiences helped them be more effective teachers. Six of the eight teachers had conducted field activities with their students, but also reported significant challenges associated with the effort.
Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Inference for the Monty Hall Problem  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Wang, Tina Tran, Fisseha Abebe
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.47127
Abstract: We devise an approach to Bayesian statistics and their applications in the analysis of the Monty Hall problem. We combine knowledge gained through applications of the Maximum Entropy Principle and Nash equilibrium strategies to provide results concerning the use of Bayesian approaches unique to the Monty Hall problem. We use a model to describe Monty’s decision process and clarify that Bayesian inference results in an “irrelevant, therefore invariant” hypothesis. We discuss the advantages of Bayesian inference over the frequentist inference in tackling the uneven prior probability Monty Hall variant. We demonstrate that the use of Bayesian statistics conforms to the Maximum Entropy Principle in information theory and Bayesian approach successfully resolves dilemmas in the uneven probability Monty Hall variant. Our findings have applications in the decision making, information theory, bioinformatics, quantum game theory and beyond.
Shrinking the Metabolic Solution Space Using Experimental Datasets
Jennifer L. Reed
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002662
Abstract: Constraint-based models of metabolism have been used in a variety of studies on drug discovery, metabolic engineering, evolution, and multi-species interactions. These genome-scale models can be generated for any sequenced organism since their main parameters (i.e., reaction stoichiometry) are highly conserved. Their relatively low parameter requirement makes these models easy to develop; however, these models often result in a solution space with multiple possible flux distributions, making it difficult to determine the precise flux state in the cell. Recent research efforts in this modeling field have investigated how additional experimental data, including gene expression, protein expression, metabolite concentrations, and kinetic parameters, can be used to reduce the solution space. This mini-review provides a summary of the data-driven computational approaches that are available for reducing the solution space and thereby improve predictions of intracellular fluxes by constraint-based models.
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