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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 235544 matches for " Jennifer L Martin "
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Ten Simple Rules to Achieve Conference Speaker Gender Balance
Jennifer L. Martin
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003903
Integrating the results of user research into medical device development: insights from a case study
Jennifer L Martin, Julie Barnett
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-12-74
Abstract: A case study of the development of a new medical imaging device was conducted to examine in detail how users were involved in a medical device development project. Two user research studies were conducted: a requirements elicitation interview study and an early prototype evaluation using contextual inquiry. A descriptive in situ approach was taken to investigate how these studies contributed to the product development process and how the results of this work influenced the development of the technology. Data was collected qualitatively through interviews with the development team, participant observation at development meetings and document analysis. The focus was on investigating the barriers that exist to prevent user data from being integrated into product development.A number of individual, organisational and system barriers were identified that functioned to prevent the results of the user research being fully integrated into development. The user and technological aspects of development were seen as separate work streams during development. The expectations of the developers were that user research would collect requirements for the appearance of the device, rather than challenge its fundamental concept. The manner that the user data was communicated to the development team was not effective in conveying the significance or breadth of the findings.There are a range of informal and formal organisational processes that can affect the uptake of user data during medical device development. Adopting formal decision making processes may assist manufacturers to take a more integrated and reflective approach to development, which should result in improved business decisions and a higher quality end product.
On the Spectra of Simplicial Rook Graphs
Jeremy L. Martin,Jennifer D. Wagner
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: The \emph{simplicial rook graph} SR(d,n) is the graph whose vertices are the lattice points in the $n$th dilate of the standard simplex in $\mathbb{R}^d$, with two vertices adjacent if they differ in exactly two coordinates. We prove that the adjacency and Laplacian matrices of SR(3,n) have integral spectrum for every $n$. The proof proceeds by calculating an explicit eigenbasis. We conjecture that SR(d,n) is integral for all $d$ and $n$, and present evidence in support of this conjecture. For $n<\binom{d}{2}$, the evidence indicates that the smallest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix is $-n$, and that the corresponding eigenspace has dimension given by the Mahonian numbers, which enumerate permutations by number of inversions.
Updown numbers and the initial monomials of the slope variety
Jeremy L. Martin,Jennifer D. Wagner
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Let $I_n$ be the ideal of all algebraic relations on the slopes of the $\binom{n}{2}$ lines formed by placing $n$ points in a plane and connecting each pair of points with a line. Under each of two natural term orders, the initial ideal of $I_n$ is generated by monomials corresponding to permutations satisfying a certain pattern-avoidance condition. We show bijectively that these permutations are enumerated by the updown (or Euler) numbers, thereby obtaining a formula for the number of generators of the initial ideal of $I_n$ in each degree.
Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by Dual-Acting PPAR Agonists
Martin B. Oleksiewicz,Jennifer Southgate,Lars Iversen,Frederikke L. Egerod
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/103167
Abstract: Despite clinical promise, dual-acting activators of PPAR and (here termed PPAR
Priority setting for new technologies in medicine: A transdisciplinary study
Jennifer L Gibson, Douglas K Martin, Peter A Singer
BMC Health Services Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-2-14
Abstract: Daniels and Sabin have developed an ethically based account about how priority setting decisions should be made. We have developed an empirically based account of how priority setting decisions are made. In this paper, we integrate these two accounts into a transdisciplinary model of priority setting for new technologies in medicine that is both ethically and empirically based.We have developed a transdisciplinary model of priority setting that provides guidance to decision makers that they can operationalize to help address priority setting problems in their institution.Priority setting is a challenge for every health care system in the world because demand for health care outweighs the supply of resources allocated to finance it. Which programs should a regional health authority fund? Which drugs should be placed on the drug benefit formulary? Which patients should be admitted to a hospital's critical care unit? Which priorities should a research granting body support?There are no widely accepted models for legitimate and fair priority setting in health care to help address these questions. Traditionally, approaches from health economics are promoted as the solution to the problem of priority setting. Health economics provides necessary but insufficient tools (e.g. cost-effectiveness analysis, program budgeting and marginal analysis [1]) to aid priority setting decision makers. Studies of actual priority setting show that these tools have only limited influence on decision making and the analyses are often unavailable when needed [2-4]. Priority setting for new technologies, for example, is frequently conducted under conditions of varying degrees of evidence about the safety, effectiveness, and appropriateness of particular interventions [3]. Moreover, there is no consensus regarding the values these approaches emphasize (i.e. efficiency) [5-9]. The Institute of Medicine Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine argued that, "... CEA [should] be used as a
Setting priorities in health care organizations: criteria, processes, and parameters of success
Jennifer L Gibson, Douglas K Martin, Peter A Singer
BMC Health Services Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-4-25
Abstract: We facilitated workshops for board members and senior leadership at three health care organizations to assist them in developing a strategy for fair priority setting. Workshop participants identified 8 priority setting criteria, 10 key priority setting process elements, and 6 parameters of success that they would use to set priorities in their organizations. Decision-makers in other organizations can draw lessons from these findings to enhance the fairness of their priority setting decision-making.Lessons learned in three workshops fill an important gap in the literature about what criteria, processes, and parameters of success Board members and senior managers would use to set priorities fairly.Hospitals and regional health authorities in Canada and elsewhere are facing significant resource allocation challenges. Priorities must be set among competing opportunities because demand for health care exceeds available resources. Board members and senior administrators are looking for practical ways to improve how they set priorities under resource constraints. The priority setting literature describes priority setting in various health care contexts [1-9]. It identifies a number of decision-making principles and approaches that could be used to set priorities [10-16]. However, very little has been reported from the perspective of Board members and senior administrators themselves about what decision-making elements (criteria and processes) they would find most useful in setting priorities or how they would evaluate the success of a priority setting exercise.Fairness is a key ethical goal of priority setting when health care resources are scarce. Experience shows that there is often disagreement on what principles should be used to make fair allocation decisions (i.e., distributive fairness) [8,17]. This means that decision-makers must rely instead on a fair process (i.e., procedural fairness) to establish the legitimacy of priority setting decisions [16,18]. Norman Dani
User needs elicitation via analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A case study on a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner
Pecchia Leandro,Martin Jennifer L,Ragozzino Angela,Vanzanella Carmela
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-13-2
Abstract: Background The rigorous elicitation of user needs is a crucial step for both medical device design and purchasing. However, user needs elicitation is often based on qualitative methods whose findings can be difficult to integrate into medical decision-making. This paper describes the application of AHP to elicit user needs for a new CT scanner for use in a public hospital. Methods AHP was used to design a hierarchy of 12 needs for a new CT scanner, grouped into 4 homogenous categories, and to prepare a paper questionnaire to investigate the relative priorities of these. The questionnaire was completed by 5 senior clinicians working in a variety of clinical specialisations and departments in the same Italian public hospital. Results Although safety and performance were considered the most important issues, user needs changed according to clinical scenario. For elective surgery, the five most important needs were: spatial resolution, processing software, radiation dose, patient monitoring, and contrast medium. For emergency, the top five most important needs were: patient monitoring, radiation dose, contrast medium control, speed run, spatial resolution. Conclusions AHP effectively supported user need elicitation, helping to develop an analytic and intelligible framework of decision-making. User needs varied according to working scenario (elective versus emergency medicine) more than clinical specialization. This method should be considered by practitioners involved in decisions about new medical technology, whether that be during device design or before deciding whether to allocate budgets for new medical devices according to clinical functions or according to hospital department.
Behavior therapy for pediatric trichotillomania: Exploring the effects of age on treatment outcome
Franklin Martin E,Edson Aubrey L,Freeman Jennifer B
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-4-18
Abstract: Background A randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of behavior therapy for pediatric trichotillomania was recently completed with 24 participants ranging in age from 7 - 17. The broad age range raised a question about whether young children, older children, and adolescents would respond similarly to intervention. In particular, it is unclear whether the younger children have the cognitive capacity to understand concepts like "urges" and whether they are able to introspect enough to be able to benefit from awareness training, which is a key aspect of behavior therapy for trichotillomania. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to receive either behavior therapy (N = 12) or minimal attention control (N = 12), which was included to control for repeated assessments and the passage of time. Primary outcome measures were the independent evaluator-rated NIMH-Trichotillomania Severity Scale, a semi-structured interview often used in trichotillomania treatment trials, and a post-treatment clinical global impression improvement rating (CGI-I). Results The correlation between age and change in symptom severity for all patients treated in the trial was small and not statistically significant. A 2 (group: behavioral therapy, minimal attention control) × 2 (time: week 0, 8) × 2 (children < 9 yrs., children > 10) ANOVA with independent evaluator-rated symptom severity scores as the continuous dependent variable also detected no main effects for age or for any interactions involving age. In light of the small sample size, the mean symptom severity scores at weeks 0 and 8 for younger and older patients randomized to behavioral therapy were also plotted. Visual inspection of these data indicated that although the groups appeared to have started at similar levels of severity for children ≤ 9 vs. children ≥ 10; the week 8 data show that the three younger children did at least as well as if not slightly better than the nine older children and adolescents. Conclusions Behavior therapy for pediatric trichotillomania appears to be efficacious even in young children. The developmental and clinical implications of these findings will be discussed. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00043563.
Treatment Approaches for Interoceptive Dysfunctions in Drug Addiction
Martin P. Paulus,Jennifer L. Stewart,Lori Haase
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00137
Abstract: There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g., adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature showing that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a insula changes that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response to drug-related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction.
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