Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 14 )

2018 ( 19 )

2017 ( 15 )

2016 ( 33 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6374 matches for " Jennifer Bryce "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /6374
Display every page Item
Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Challenges and Opportunities in the Selection of Coverage Indicators for Global Monitoring
Jennifer Harris Requejo ,Holly Newby,Jennifer Bryce
PLOS Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001416
Abstract: Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.
Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Evaluation of Community-Based Treatment of Childhood Illnesses through Household Surveys
Elizabeth Hazel ,Jennifer Requejo,Julia David,Jennifer Bryce
PLOS Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001384
Abstract: Community case management (CCM) is a strategy for training and supporting workers at the community level to provide treatment for the three major childhood diseases—diarrhea, fever (indicative of malaria), and pneumonia—as a complement to facility-based care. Many low- and middle-income countries are now implementing CCM and need to evaluate whether adoption of the strategy is associated with increases in treatment coverage. In this review, we assess the extent to which large-scale, national household surveys can serve as sources of baseline data for evaluating trends in community-based treatment coverage for childhood illnesses. Our examination of the questionnaires used in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted between 2005 and 2010 in five sub-Saharan African countries shows that questions on care seeking that included a locally adapted option for a community-based provider were present in all the DHS surveys and in some MICS surveys. Most of the surveys also assessed whether appropriate treatments were available, but only one survey collected information on the place of treatment for all three illnesses. This absence of baseline data on treatment source in household surveys will limit efforts to evaluate the effects of the introduction of CCM strategies in the study countries. We recommend alternative analysis plans for assessing CCM programs using household survey data that depend on baseline data availability and on the timing of CCM policy implementation.
Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy
Victora,Cesar G.; Bryce,Jennifer; Fontaine,Olivier; Monasch,Roeland;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000001000010
Abstract: in 1980, diarrhoea was the leading cause of child mortality, accounting for 4.6 million deaths annually. efforts to control diarrhoea over the past decade have been based on multiple, potentially powerful interventions implemented more or less simultaneously. oral rehydration therapy (ort) was introduced in 1979 and rapidly became the cornerstone of programmes for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. we report on the strategy for controlling diarrhoea through case management, with special reference to ort, and on the relationship between its implementation and reduced mortality. population-based data on the coverage and quality of facility-based use of ort are scarce, despite its potential importance in reducing mortality, especially for severe cases. ort use rates during the 1980s are available for only a few countries. an improvement in the availability of data occurred in the mid-1990s. the study of time trends is hampered by the use of several different definitions of ort. nevertheless, the data show positive trends in diarrhoea management in most parts of the world. ort is now given to the majority of children with diarrhoea. the annual number of deaths attributable to diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years fell from the estimated 4.6 million in 1980 to about 1.5 million today. case studies in brazil, egypt, mexico, and the philippines confirm increases in the use of ort which are concomitant with marked falls in mortality. in some countries, possible alternative explanations for the observed decline in mortality have been fairly confidently ruled out. experience with ort can provide useful guidance for child survival programmes. with adequate political will and financial support, cost-effective interventions other than that of immunization can be successfully delivered by national programmes. furthermore, there are important lessons for evaluators. the population-based data needed to establish trends in health service delivery, outcomes and impact are not
ADAM17 Deletion in Thymic Epithelial Cells Alters Aire Expression without Affecting T Cell Developmental Progression
David M. Gravano,Bryce T. McLelland,Keisuke Horiuchi,Jennifer O. Manilay
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013528
Abstract: Cellular interactions between thymocytes and thymic stromal cells are critical for normal T cell development. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are important stromal niche cells that provide essential growth factors, cytokines, and present self-antigens to developing thymocytes. The identification of genes that mediate cellular crosstalk in the thymus is ongoing. One candidate gene, Adam17, encodes a metalloprotease that functions by cleaving the ectodomain of several transmembrane proteins and regulates various developmental processes. In conventional Adam17 knockout mice, a non-cell autonomous role for ADAM17 in adult T cell development was reported, which strongly suggested that expression of ADAM17 in TECs was required for normal T cell development. However, knockdown of Adam17 results in multisystem developmental defects and perinatal lethality, which has made study of the role of Adam17 in specific cell types difficult. Here, we examined T cell and thymic epithelial cell development using a conditional knockout approach.
Monitoring Child Mortality through Community Health Worker Reporting of Births and Deaths in Malawi: Validation against a Household Mortality Survey
Agbessi Amouzou, Benjamin Banda, Willie Kachaka, Olga Joos, Mercy Kanyuka, Kenneth Hill, Jennifer Bryce
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088939
Abstract: Background The rate of decline in child mortality is too slow in most African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Effective strategies to monitor child mortality are needed where accurate vital registration data are lacking to help governments assess and report on progress in child survival. We present results from a test of a mortality monitoring approach based on recording of births and deaths by specially trained community health workers (CHWs) in Malawi. Methods and Findings Government-employed community health workers in Malawi are responsible for maintaining a Village Health Register, in which they record births and deaths that occur in their catchment area. We expanded on this system to provide additional training, supervision and incentives. We tested the equivalence between child mortality rates obtained from data on births and deaths collected by 160 randomly-selected and trained CHWs over twenty months in two districts to those computed through a standard household mortality survey. CHW reports produced an under-five mortality rate that was 84% (95%CI: [0.71,1.00]) of the household survey mortality rate and statistically equivalent to it. However, CHW data consistently underestimated under-five mortality, with levels of under-estimation increasing over time. Under-five deaths were more likely to be missed than births. Neonatal and infant deaths were more likely to be missed than older deaths. Conclusion This first test of the accuracy and completeness of vital events data reported by CHWs in Malawi as a strategy for monitoring child mortality shows promising results but underestimated child mortality and was not stable over the four periods assessed. Given the Malawi government's commitment to strengthen its vital registration system, we are working with the Ministry of Health to implement a revised version of the approach that provides increased support to CHWs.
Measuring Coverage in MNCH: New Findings, New Strategies, and Recommendations for Action
Jennifer Bryce ,Fred Arnold,Ann Blanc,Attila Hancioglu,Holly Newby,Jennifer Requejo,Tessa Wardlaw,the CHERG Working Group on Improving Coverage Measurement
PLOS Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001423
Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in reducing maternal, newborn, and child mortality worldwide, but many more deaths could be prevented if effective interventions were available to all who could benefit from them. Timely, high-quality measurements of intervention coverage—the proportion of a population in need of a health intervention that actually receives it—are essential to support sound decisions about progress and investments in women's and children's health. The PLOS Medicine “Measuring Coverage in MNCH” Collection of research studies and reviews presents systematic assessments of the validity of health intervention coverage measurement based on household surveys, the primary method for estimating population-level intervention coverage in low- and middle-income countries. In this overview of the Collection, we discuss how and why some of the indicators now being used to track intervention coverage may not provide fully reliable coverage measurements, and how a better understanding of the systematic and random error inherent in these coverage indicators can help in their interpretation and use. We draw together strategies proposed across the Collection for improving coverage measurement, and recommend continued support for high-quality household surveys at national and sub-national levels, supplemented by surveys with lighter tools that can be implemented every 1–2 years and by complementary health-facility-based assessments of service quality. Finally, we stress the importance of learning more about coverage measurement to strengthen the foundation for assessing and improving the progress of maternal, newborn, and child health programs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the Multi-Country Evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy
Gouws,Eleanor; Bryce,Jennifer; Habicht,Jean-Pierre; Amaral,Jo?o; Pariyo,George; Schellenberg,Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine,Olivier;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000700008
Abstract: objective: the objective of this study was to assess the effect of integrated management of childhood illness (imci) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. methods: data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in brazil, uganda and the united republic of tanzania were statistically analysed. the surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of imci effectiveness, cost and impact (mce). findings: results from three mce sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in imci are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in imci. they are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility, to have their caregiver advised how to administer the drug, and to have caregivers who are able to describe correctly how to give the drug at home as they leave the health facility. conclusion: imci case management training is an effective intervention to improve the rational use of antimicrobial drugs for sick children visiting first-level health facilities in low-income and middle-income countries.
Effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) on health worker performance in Northeast-Brazil
Amaral, Jo?o;Gouws, Eleanor;Bryce, Jennifer;Leite, álvaro Jorge Madeiro;Cunha, Antonio Ledo Alves da;Victora, Cesar G.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000800016
Abstract: a multi-country evaluation is being carried out in brazil and four other countries to determine the effectiveness, cost, and impact of the integrated management of childhood illness (imci). we examine the effect of imci on the quality of health care provided to children under five visiting health facilities. a health facility survey was conducted at 24 facilities (12 with imci) in each of four states in the northeast. we assessed the quality of care provided to children between 2 months and 5 years attending the facilities. health workers trained in imci provided significantly better care than those not trained. significant differences between health workers who were trained or not trained in imci were found in the assessment of the child, disease classification, treatment, and caretaker communication. nurses trained in imci performed as well as, and sometimes better than, medical officers trained in imci. we conclude that while there is room for further improvement, imci case management training significantly improves health worker performance, and that parts of brazil that have not yet introduced imci should be encouraged to do so.
Integrated Management of Childhood Illness: efficiency of primary health in Northeast Brazil
Amorim,Débora G; Adam,Taghreed; Amaral,Jo?o J F; Gouws,Eleanor; Bryce,Jennifer; Victora,Cesar G;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008000200001
Abstract: objective: the integrated management of childhood illness is a strategy designed to address major causes of child mortality. the aim of this study was to assess the impact of the strategy on the quality of child health care provided at primary facilities. methods: child health quality of care and costs were compared in four states in northeastern brazil, in 2001. there were studied 48 health facilities considered to have had stable strategy implementation at least two years before the start of study, with 48 matched comparison facilities in the same states. a single measure of correct management of sick children was used to assess care provided to all sick children. costs included all resources at the national, state, local and facility levels associated with child health care. results: facilities providing strategy-based care had significantly better management of sick children at no additional cost to municipalities relative to the comparison municipalities. at strategy facilities 72% of children were correctly managed compared with 56% in comparison facilities (p=0.001). the cost per child managed correctly was us$13.20 versus us$21.05 in the strategy and comparison municipalities, respectively, after standardization for population size. conclusions: the strategy improves the efficiency of primary facilities in northeastern brazil. it leads to better health outcomes at no extra cost.
Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Challenges in Monitoring the Proportion of Young Children with Pneumonia Who Receive Antibiotic Treatment
Harry Campbell ,Shams el Arifeen,Tabish Hazir,James O'Kelly,Jennifer Bryce,Igor Rudan,Shamim Ahmad Qazi
PLOS Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001421
Abstract: Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%), the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool). Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.
Page 1 /6374
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.