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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 541361 matches for " Jennifer A. O’Dea "
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Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, Self Efficacy and Behaviors in Teachers and Children after Implementation of the “Healthy Active Kids” Online Program in Australian Elementary Schools  [PDF]
Jennifer A. ODea
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.84031
Abstract: The aims were to examine change in nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self efficacy and attitudes in a cohort of 23 teachers and 304 year 5 and 6 children after the “Healthy Active Kids” online program and to assess any behavioral change in children’s self reported nutrition and physical activity behaviors and investigate the predictors of nutrition knowledge gain in teachers and children. Results found significant (p < 0.0001) increases in teacher and student knowledge of the five food groups; key nutrients provided by each food group, The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; food labelling laws, identification of common names for fats, sugars and salts on food labels, food proportions on the Healthy Food Plate and the level and percentage of water in the human body and human brain. Teacher attitudes towards the importance of nutrition and diet and self efficacy related to teaching nutrition in class improved (p < 0.01). The final regression model for predictors of the dependent variable, knowledge gain in students was R = 0.53, Adjusted R square = 0.28 (F = 4.76, p < 0.01) indicating that 28% of the variation in knowledge gain was predicted by the negative (low) Time 1 knowledge. Changes to eating habits reported by children were “drinking more water each day” (89.1%) and “eating foods from the five food groups each day” (76.2%); “sharing information about food labels with your family” (52.4%); “reading food labels when you go shopping” (50.0%); “changing what is on your dinner plate each night” (44.2%); “vegetables that you eat now that you didn’t eat before” (42.1%) and “fruits that you eat now” (39%). Results suggest that the development of basic nutrition knowledge is still very important for both teachers and students, but that other factors such as self efficacy, empowerment and skill development also contribute to nutrition behavior change in children.
Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents
Jennifer A O'Dea, Nancy K Amy
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-68
Abstract: The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents.The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups.Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less likely to desire to get fitter or be encouraged to exercise. Both extremes of the spectrum of weight, from underweight to obese, may have serious health consequences for the individuals, as well as for public health policy. Health and wellness programs that promote positive social experiences and encourage exercise should include children of all sizes.If good health in children were associated with the most desirable body type portrayed in popular media, one might expect thin children to be demonstrably healthier than their obese, overweight and perhaps even normal
Childhood Obesity: Today and Tomorrow’s Health Challenge
Roya Kelishadi,Sarah D. de Ferranti,Reza Majdzadeh,Jennifer A. ODea,Ajay K. Gupta,Khosrow Adeli
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/208392
Abstract:
Reducing the false positive rate in the non-parametric analysis of molecular coevolution
Francisco M Codo?er, Shirley O'Dea, Mario A Fares
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-106
Abstract: Here we test the effect that variations on the MSA properties have over the sensitivity of non-parametric methods to detect coevolution. We test the effect that the size of the MSA (number of sequences), mean pairwise amino acid distance per site and the strength of the coevolution signal have on the ability of non-parametric methods to detect coevolution. Our results indicate that all three factors have significant effects on the accuracy of non-parametric methods. Further, introducing statistical filters improves the sensitivity and increases the statistical power of the methods to detect functional coevolution. Statistical analysis of the physico-chemical properties of amino acid sites in the context of the protein structure reveals striking dependencies among amino acid sites. Results indicate a covariation trend in the hydrophobicities and molecular weight characteristics of amino acid sites when analysing a non-redundant set of 8000 protein structures. Using this biological information as filter in coevolutionary analyses minimises the false positive rate of these methods. Application of these filters to three different proteins with known functional domains supports the importance of using biological filters to detect coevolution.Coevolutionary analyses using non-parametric methods have proved difficult and highly prone to provide spurious results depending on the properties of MSAs and on the strength of coevolution between amino acid sites. The application of statistical filters to the number of pairs detected as coevolving reduces significantly the number of artifactual results. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of amino acid sites in the protein structure context reveals their structure-dependent covariation. The application of this known biological information to the analysis of covariation greatly enhances the functional coevolutionary signal and removes historical covariation. Simultaneous use of statistical and biological data is instrumenta
Late gadolinium enhancement and subclinical cardiac dysfunction on cardiac MRI in asymptomatic HIV-positive men
A Loy,R Morgan,S O'Dea,E Takacs
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18150
Abstract: Background: HIV is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related clinical events. While traditional risk factors play an important role in the pathology of cardiovascular disease, HIV infection and its sequelae of immune activation and inflammation may have significant effects on the myocardium before becoming clinically evident. Cardiac MRI (CMR) can be used to detect the pattern of these subclinical changes. This will lead to a better understanding of risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disease prior to it becoming clinically significant in HIV-positive patients. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 127 asymptomatic HIV-positive men on ART compared to 35 matched controls. Baseline demographics, HIV parameters, 12-lead ECG, routine biochemistry, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Images were acquired on a 3T Achieva Philips MRI scanner with 5 channel phase array cardiac coil and weight-based IV gadolinium was given at 0.15 mmol/kg dose with post-contrast inversion recovery imaging after 10 minutes. Results: 6/127 (4.7%) of asymptomatic HIV-positive men had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on MRI verses 1/35 (2.9%) in the control group. In 3/6 (50%) of cases this was in a classical infarction pattern with subendocardial involvement. 3/6 (50%) were consistent with prior myocarditis. There was no significant difference in mean LVEF (66.93% vs 65.18%), LVMI (60.05g/m2 vs 55.94g/m2) or posterolateral wall thickness (8.28 mm and 8.16 mm) between cases and controls respectively. There was significantly more diastolic dysfunction, E:A ratio < 1, found in the HIV-positive group, 18% vs 7% of controls (p = 0.037). Framingham risk did not predict either of these outcomes. Conclusions: There is an increased incidence of LGE detected on CMR in this asymptomatic HIV-positive cohort. Two distinct pathological processes were identifed as causing these changes, myocardial infarction and myocarditis. These findings were independent of traditional cardiac risk factors, duration of HIV infection and ART therapy. Sub clinical cardiac dysfunction may be underreported in other cardiac evaluation studies. The true impact of other potential risk factors may also be underestimated, highlighting the need for the development of more complex prediction models.
Management of dyslipidaemia in an HIV-positive cohort
A Loy,L Townsend,S O'Dea,F Mulcahy
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18128
Abstract: Background: Dyslipidaemia, secondary to both HIV and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well recognised, with HIV replication and immune status also thought to contribute to the risk. Traditionally the HIV physician has looked after HIV with primary care physicians (GP) managing non-HIV-related medical issues. However with the ageing population and the effectiveness of ART the HIV physician is diversifying to focus management strategies on preventative measures also. Method: 127 subjects were recruited. All subjects were HIV-positive males without any traditional cardiovascular disease symptoms or history. Details of patients demographics, family history, statin therapy, and primary care physician contact were collected. Baseline parameters were recorded and fasting bloods taken. Results: 127 asymptomatic HIV-positive males were recruited. 74/127 (58.3%) met the EACS criteria for statin prescription. 33/74 (44.6%) were on a statin. There was no significant difference between the class of antiretroviral prescribed, (NNRTI v PI) and lipid abnormalities (p=0.628). Hypertension and increased waist:hip ratio significantly increased the chances of the patient being hyperlipidaemic. Patients were more likely to be prescribed a statin if they were older, had hypertension, an increased waist circumference, increased Framingham risk, increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), or were diagnosed HIV-positive for longer (p<0.05). Pravastatin (21/33 [63.6%]), was most commonly prescribed statin. 24.2% received their statin prescription from their HIV physician, with 75.8% receiving their prescription from their GP. 5/21 (23.8%) on pravastatin met the target verses 7/7 (100%) on atorvastatin verses 2/2 (100%) on simvastatin versus 1/3 (33.3%) on rosuvastatin (p=0.02). Meeting lipid targets was less successful in the protease inhibitor group (1/9) 11.1% versus 11/21 (52.4%) in the NNRTI group (p=0.16). Conclusion: The majority met criteria for lipid management but less than half of those were prescribed it. Of those, most received treatment from their GP. Nearly half of those on statins did not meet lipid targets. HIV physicians were most likely to prescribe pravastatin and those on pravastatin were the least likely to achieve lipid targets when compared to the other statins. HIV physicians need to diversify their knowledge base and have clearly defined management strategies for the management of dyslipidaemia.
A direct image of the obscuring disk surrounding an active galactic nucleus
Jack F. Gallimore,Stefi A. Baum,Christopher P. O'Dea
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1038/42201
Abstract: Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are generally accepted to be powered by the release of gravitational energy in a compact accretion disk surrounding a massive black hole. Such disks are also necessary to collimate powerful radio jets seen in some AGN. The unifying classification schemes for AGN further propose that differences in their appearance can be attributed to the opacity of the accreting material, which may obstruct our view of the central region of some systems. The popular model for the obscuring medium is a parsec-scale disk of dense molecular gas, although evidence for such disks has been mostly indirect, as their angular size is much smaller than the resolution of conventional telescopes. Here we report the first direct images of a pc-scale disk of ionised gas within the nucleus of NGC 1068, the archetype of obscured AGN. The disk is viewed nearly edge-on, and individual clouds within the ionised disk are opaque to high-energy radiation, consistent with the unifying classification scheme. In projection, the disk and AGN axes align, from which we infer that the ionised gas disk traces the outer regions of the long-sought inner accretion disk.
Modelling temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: sensitivity to model type and surface forcing
C. K. O'Neill,J. A. Polton,J. T. Holt,E. J. O'Dea
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/osd-9-649-2012
Abstract: Three shelf sea models are compared against observed surface temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: a 7 km NEMO model, and 12 km and 1.8 km POLCOMS models. Each model is run with two different surface forcing datasets of different resolutions. Comparisons with a variety of observations from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory show that increasing the surface forcing resolution improves the modelled surface temperature in all the models, in particular reducing the summer warm bias and winter cool bias. The response of surface salinity is more varied with improvements in some areas and deterioration in others. The 7 km NEMO model performs as well as the 1.8 km POLCOMS model when measured by overall skill scores although the sources of error in the models are different. NEMO is too weakly stratified in Liverpool Bay, whereas POLCOMS is too strongly stratified. The horizontal salinity gradient, which is too strong in POLCOMS, is better reproduced by NEMO which uses a more diffusive horizontal advection scheme. This leads to improved semi-diurnal variability in salinity in NEMO at a mooring site located in the Liverpool Bay ROFI area.
Modelling temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: sensitivity to model type and surface forcing
C. K. O'Neill,J. A. Polton,J. T. Holt,E. J. O'Dea
Ocean Science (OS) & Discussions (OSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/os-8-903-2012
Abstract: Three shelf sea models are compared against observed surface temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: a 7 km NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model, and 12 km and 1.8 km POLCOMS (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System) models. Each model is run with two different surface forcing datasets of different resolutions. Comparisons with a variety of observations from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory show that increasing the surface forcing resolution improves the modelled surface temperature in all the models, in particular reducing the summer warm bias and winter cool bias. The response of surface salinity is more varied with improvements in some areas and deterioration in others. The 7 km NEMO model performs as well as the 1.8 km POLCOMS model when measured by overall skill scores, although the sources of error in the models are different. NEMO is too weakly stratified in Liverpool Bay, whereas POLCOMS is too strongly stratified. The horizontal salinity gradient, which is too strong in POLCOMS, is better reproduced by NEMO which uses a more diffusive horizontal advection scheme. This leads to improved semi-diurnal variability in salinity in NEMO at a mooring site located in the Liverpool Bay ROFI (region of freshwater influence) area.
The Relationship Between Beam Power and Radio Power for Classical Double Radio Sources
Ruth A. Daly,Trevor B. Sprinkle,Christopher P. O'Dea,Preeti Kharb,Stefi A. Baum
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21060.x
Abstract: Beam power is a fundamental parameter that describes, in part, the state of a supermassive black hole system. Determining the beam powers of powerful classical double radio sources requires substantial observing time, so it would be useful to determine the relationship between beam power and radio power so that radio power could be used as a proxy for beam power. A sample of 31 powerful classical double radio sources with previously determined beam and radio powers are studied; the sources have redshifts between about 0.056 and 1.8. It is found that the relationship between beam power, Lj, and radio power, P, is well described by Log(Lj) = 0.84 Log(P) + 2.15, where both L_j and P are in units of 10^(44) erg/s. This indicates that beam power is converted to radio power with an efficiency of about 0.7%. The ratio of beam power to radio power is studied as a function of redshift; there is no significant evidence for redshift evolution of this ratio over the redshift range studied. The relationship is consistent with empirical results obtained by Cavagnolo et al. (2010) for radio sources in gas rich environments, which are primarily FRI sources, and with the theoretical predictions of Willott et al. (1999).
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