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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466048 matches for " Jennifer A. Frontera "
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Clinical Trials in Cardiac Arrest and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Lessons from the Past and Ideas for the Future
Jennifer A. Frontera
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/263974
Abstract:
Clinical Trials in Cardiac Arrest and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Lessons from the Past and Ideas for the Future
Jennifer A. Frontera
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/263974
Abstract: Introduction. Elevated intracranial pressure that occurs at the time of cerebral aneurysm rupture can lead to inadequate cerebral blood flow, which may mimic the brain injury cascade that occurs after cardiac arrest. Insights from clinical trials in cardiac arrest may provide direction for future early brain injury research after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods. A search of PubMed from 1980 to 2012 and clinicaltrials.gov was conducted to identify published and ongoing randomized clinical trials in aneurysmal SAH and cardiac arrest patients. Only English, adult, human studies with primary or secondary mortality or neurological outcomes were included. Results. A total of 142 trials (82 SAH, 60 cardiac arrest) met the review criteria (103 published, 39 ongoing). The majority of both published and ongoing SAH trials focus on delayed secondary insults after SAH (70%), while 100% of cardiac arrest trials tested interventions within the first few hours of ictus. No SAH trials addressing treatment of early brain injury were identified. Twenty-nine percent of SAH and 13% of cardiac arrest trials showed outcome benefit, though there is no overlap mechanistically. Conclusions. Clinical trials in SAH assessing acute brain injury are warranted and successful interventions identified by the cardiac arrest literature may be reasonable targets of the study. 1. Introduction For decades, research efforts in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have focused on vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits. However, brain injury at the time of aneurysm rupture is a significant predictor of functional outcome. Indeed, poor admission neurological status (Hunt-Hess or World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Score), which reflects acute brain injury, is a larger contributor to death or severe disability than delayed cerebral ischemia [1, 2]. However, the mechanism of early brain injury after aneurysm rupture remains elusive and no current therapies are available. One possible mechanism of acute injury was described in a small case series of 6 patients with observed recurrent aneurysm rupture either during transcranial Doppler (TCD) or during craniotomy with open skull but intact dura. The investigators report a spike in intracranial pressure (ICP) that developed over 1 minute and then declined over several minutes. This abrupt increase in ICP approached levels near mean arterial pressure and led to a concomitant drop in cerebral blood flow resulting in circulatory arrest, as documented by TCD [61]. This study examined aneurysm rebleeding and does not provide direct
SALUD MENTAL Y BIOéTICA: RELACIóN SIMBIóTICA
Frontera Roura,Ernesto A;
Acta bioethica , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2009000200002
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to reflect about the strong relationship, of mutual nurturance if you will, seen about issues related to mental health and illness, psychiatry, bioethics and public health. an attempt is made to describe and explain the scope of each concept; to incorporate epidemiological data that facilitate us to appreciate the magnitude of the problem of mental health around the planet; to justify the need to attend the situation with the organization and operation of a mental healthcare system of services that respond to certain ethical parameters; and identify some areas in which bioethics is an essential element in the analysis of the problem and in establishing the basis of the solution.
SALUD MENTAL Y BIOéTICA: RELACIóN SIMBIóTICA SAúDE MENTAL E BIOéTICA: RELA O SIMBIóTICA MENTAL HEALTH AND BIOETHICS: A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
Ernesto A Frontera Roura
Acta Bioethica , 2009,
Abstract: El propósito de este trabajo es reflexionar sobre la relación estrecha, de nutrición mutua si se quiere, entre los asuntos relacionados con la salud y las enfermedades mentales, la psiquiatría, la bioética y la salud pública. Se intenta describir y explicar el alcance de cada concepto; incorporar datos epidemiológicos que permitan apreciar la magnitud del problema de salud mental alrededor del planeta; justificar la necesidad de atender esta situación con la organización y operación de un sistema de servicios de cuidado de salud mental que responda a ciertos parámetros éticos, e identificar algunas áreas en las cuales la bioética es un elemento indispensable en el análisis del problema y en la fundamentación de la solución. O propósito deste trabalho é refletir a estreita rela o, simbiótica, se assim for entendido, entre os assuntos relacionados com a saúde e as doen as mentais, a psiquiatria, a bioética e a saúde pública. Prop e-se descrever e explicar o alcance de cada conceito; incorporar dados epidemiológicos que permitam apreciar a magnitude do problema da saúde mental ao redor do planeta; justificar a necessidade de atender esta situa o com a organiza o e a operacionaliza o de um sistema de servi os de cuidado à saúde mental que responda a certos parametros éticos e identificar algumas áreas nas quais a bioética é um elemento indispensável para a análise do problema e a fundamenta o da solu o. The purpose of this paper is to reflect about the strong relationship, of mutual nurturance if you will, seen about issues related to mental health and illness, psychiatry, bioethics and public health. An attempt is made to describe and explain the scope of each concept; to incorporate epidemiological data that facilitate us to appreciate the magnitude of the problem of mental health around the planet; to justify the need to attend the situation with the organization and operation of a mental healthcare system of services that respond to certain ethical parameters; and identify some areas in which bioethics is an essential element in the analysis of the problem and in establishing the basis of the solution.
Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, Self Efficacy and Behaviors in Teachers and Children after Implementation of the “Healthy Active Kids” Online Program in Australian Elementary Schools  [PDF]
Jennifer A. O’Dea
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.84031
Abstract: The aims were to examine change in nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self efficacy and attitudes in a cohort of 23 teachers and 304 year 5 and 6 children after the “Healthy Active Kids” online program and to assess any behavioral change in children’s self reported nutrition and physical activity behaviors and investigate the predictors of nutrition knowledge gain in teachers and children. Results found significant (p < 0.0001) increases in teacher and student knowledge of the five food groups; key nutrients provided by each food group, The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; food labelling laws, identification of common names for fats, sugars and salts on food labels, food proportions on the Healthy Food Plate and the level and percentage of water in the human body and human brain. Teacher attitudes towards the importance of nutrition and diet and self efficacy related to teaching nutrition in class improved (p < 0.01). The final regression model for predictors of the dependent variable, knowledge gain in students was R = 0.53, Adjusted R square = 0.28 (F = 4.76, p < 0.01) indicating that 28% of the variation in knowledge gain was predicted by the negative (low) Time 1 knowledge. Changes to eating habits reported by children were “drinking more water each day” (89.1%) and “eating foods from the five food groups each day” (76.2%); “sharing information about food labels with your family” (52.4%); “reading food labels when you go shopping” (50.0%); “changing what is on your dinner plate each night” (44.2%); “vegetables that you eat now that you didn’t eat before” (42.1%) and “fruits that you eat now” (39%). Results suggest that the development of basic nutrition knowledge is still very important for both teachers and students, but that other factors such as self efficacy, empowerment and skill development also contribute to nutrition behavior change in children.
Optimal Design of a Multibody Self-Referencing Attenuator  [PDF]
Dongmei Zhou, Jennifer A. Eden
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.39005
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal size and number of tubes for a generic attenuator that is similar to Pelamis P2, the wave energy converter. Simulations using ANSYS Workbench, Design Modeler, and AQWA are performed to study the energy absorption at the nodes between the tubes. The analysis is limited to linearized hydrodynamic fluid waves loading on floating bodies by employing three-dimensional radiation/diffraction theory in regular waves in the frequency domain. Three sets of tests are conducted by varying total tube number, each tube length and the order of tubes with different lengths. After a systematic study in the frequency domain, the optimal size and number of the genetic attenuator is recommended.
DInSAR coseismic deformation of the May 2011 Mw 5.1 Lorca earthquake, (Southern Spain)
T. Frontera,A. Concha,P. Blanco,A. Echeverria
Solid Earth Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/sed-3-963-2011
Abstract: The coseismic superficial deformation at the region of Lorca (Murcia, southeastern Spain) due to the Mw 5.1 earthquake occurred on 11 May 2011 was studied by a multidisciplinary team, integrating information from DInSAR, GPS and numerical modeling techniques. Despite the moderate magnitude of the event, quantitative information was obtained from the interferometric study of a pair of SAR images. Coseismic vertical deformation was differentiated from subsidence related to groundwater extraction at the footwall block through a numerical modeling deformation estimation based on elastic rupture dislocations. On the other hand, horizontal crustal deformation rates obtained from the analysis of a GPS network existent in the area are also coherent with the mechanism calculated for the earthquake.
Oxygen equilibrium and kinetics in PrBaCo2O5+δ
Frontera, C.,Caneiro, A.,Carrillo, A. E.,Oró-Solé, J.
Boletín de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Cerámica y Vidrio , 2006,
Abstract: By means of in-situ thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA) we have studied the dependence on temperature of the equilibrium oxygen content (δ) in PrBaCo2O5+δ cobaltite under different atmospheres or oxygen partial pressure. We have also characterized the kinetics of δ changes at different temperatures. The equilibrium studies have permitted us to prepare samples with the desired values of δ, a crucial step to correctly characterize the interesting family of layered “112” cobalt oxides. Kinetic studies reveal that oxygen diffusion and surface reactivity starts at low temperatures (200oC) in these compounds. Mediante medidas de análisis termogravimétrico hemos estudiado la dependencia en la temperatura del contenido de oxígeno (δ) en cobaltitas PrBaCo2O5+δ bajo diferentes atmósferas y diferentes presiones parciales de oxígeno. Por otra parte, hemos caracterizado la cinética de los cambios de δ a diferentes temperaturas. Los estudios en equilibrio nos han permitido preparar muestras con valores deseados de δ. Esto es crucial poder estudiar convenientemente esta familia de óxidos de cobalto con estructura “112” laminar. Los estudios de la cinética revelan que la difusión de oxígeno en el interior de las muestras, así como la reactividad en la superficie, empieza a temperaturas relativamente bajas (200oC).
Gamma Ray Bursts from delayed collapse of neutron stars to quark matter stars
Z. Berezhiani,I. Bombaci,A. Drago,F. Frontera,A. Lavagno
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/367756
Abstract: We propose a model to explain how a Gamma Rays Burst can take place days or years after a supernova explosion. Our model is based on the conversion of a pure hadronic star (neutron star) into a star made at least in part of deconfined quark matter. The conversion process can be delayed if the surface tension at the interface between hadronic and deconfined-quark-matter phases is taken into account. The nucleation time (i.e. the time to form a critical-size drop of quark matter) can be extremely long if the mass of the star is small. Via mass accretion the nucleation time can be dramaticaly reduced and the star is finally converted into the stable configuration. A huge amount of energy, of the order of 10$^{52}$--10$^{53}$ erg, is released during the conversion process and can produce a powerful Gamma Ray Burst. The delay between the supernova explosion generating the metastable neutron star and the new collapse can explain the delay proposed in GRB990705 and in GRB011211.
The Development of LISTEN: A Novel Intervention for Loneliness  [PDF]
Laurie A. Theeke, Jennifer A. Mallow
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.52016
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of LISTEN (Loneliness Intervention using Story Theory to Enhance Nursing-sensitive outcomes), a new intervention for loneliness. Methods: LISTEN was developed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for intervention development. Extensive literature review revealed that belonging, relating, placing in community, challenges, and meanings of coping were concepts significant to loneliness. Past interventions were limited but it was determined from a recent meta-analysis that enhanced effectiveness might result from interventions that targeted the poorly adapted cognitive processes of loneliness. These processes include social undesirability, stigma, and negative thoughts about self in relation to others. LISTEN is designed to be delivered in a determined logical sequence of 5 sessions, each focusing on the concepts relevant to loneliness as derived from the literature. For each session, intervention delivery is guided by the concepts from story theory (including intentional dialogue, nurse as listener, examination of self in relation to others and community, synthesizing concerns and patterns, and identifying messages) and the principles of cognitive restructuring (self-assessment of maladaptive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, identifying challenges of changing, reconceptualization of self, new skill acquisition through group interaction, and identifying patterns of meaning in loneliness). Results: LISTEN is developed and the first randomized trial is complete with a sample of 27 lonely, chronically ill, community dwelling, and older adults. LISTEN was evaluated as feasible to deliver by the study team and acceptable for significantly diminishing loneliness by participants of the LISTEN groups who were compared to attention control groups (p < 0.5). Conclusions: LISTEN has the potential to enhance health by diminishing loneliness which could result in improving the long-term negative known sequelae of loneliness. Future longitudinal randomized trials are needed in varied populations to assess long term health and healthcare system benefit of using LISTEN to treat loneliness.
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