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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220116 matches for " Jennie C. Stephens "
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Growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) for climate change mitigation
Jennie C. Stephens
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2006,
Abstract: Interest in technologies associated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been growing rapidly in both the public and private sectors over the past five to ten years as governments, industry, and individuals grapple with how to reconcile increased energy demand with the need to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to mitigate the risks of climate change. CCS technology involves capturing the CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion and storing it in underground geologic reservoirs instead of emitting it into the atmosphere. The idea of engineering the storage of carbon in a reservoir has developed from relative obscurity to an increasingly recognized approach to stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This paper (1) identifies several influential nongovernmental stakeholders and discusses their contributions to CCS and (2) describes how governmental influence through political positions, government-supported research and development, and regulations and international treaties have influenced CCS initiatives. While the relative strength of nongovernmental and governmental influences is not quantified, this treatment of the various factors contributing to the advancement of CCS technology highlights the complexity associated with integrating developments in science and engineering into sustainable practices.
Who has a stake? How stakeholder processes influence partnership sustainability
Mary-Ellen Boyle,Laurie Ross,Jennie C. Stephens
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2011,
Abstract: As universities attempt to expand their relevance by engaging with local and regional societal challenges, various kinds of partnerships are emerging. A broad range of stakeholders, from both the university and the community, are typically engaged in and influence the development, implementation and perpetuation of these partnerships. This paper juxtaposes analysis of three community-university partnerships in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, paying particular attention to the partnerships’ stakeholders, and to their relative importance. This research builds upon current understandings of critical factors in partnership sustainability, as these three partnerships have different goals, involve different university and community stakeholders, and are at different points in their organisational history. The fact that they share the same context – the same city – offers a unique opportunity for comparative case study analysis. The theory of stakeholder salience is used to explain findings about partnership sustainability and to make suggestions for strengthening existing partnerships. Specifically, we argue that stakeholder power and legitimacy, along with stakeholder urgency, are key factors in sustaining community-university partnerships. Keywords Community-university partnerships; economic development; community development; stakeholder salience
Getting Smart? Climate Change and the Electric Grid
Jennie C. Stephens,Elizabeth J. Wilson,Tarla R. Peterson,James Meadowcroft
Challenges , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/challe4020201
Abstract: Interest in the potential of smart grid to transform the way societies generate, distribute, and use electricity has increased dramatically over the past decade. A smarter grid could contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation by increasing low-carbon electricity production and enhancing system reliability and resilience. However, climate goals are not necessarily essential for smart grid. Climate change is only one of many considerations motivating innovation in electricity systems, and depending on the path of grid modernization, a future smart grid might do little to reduce, or could even exacerbate, risks associated with climate change. This paper identifies tensions within a shared smart grid vision and illustrates how competing societal priorities are influencing electricity system innovation. Co-existing but divergent priorities among key actors’ are mapped across two critical dimensions: centralized versus decentralized energy systems and radical versus incremental change. Understanding these tensions provides insights on how climate change objectives can be integrated to shape smart grid development. Electricity system change is context-specific and path-dependent, so specific strategies linking smart grid and climate change need to be developed at local, regional, and national levels. And while incremental improvements may bring short term gains, a radical transformation is needed to realize climate objectives.
Transitions in climate and energy discourse between Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy
Emily M. Cody,Jennie C. Stephens,James P. Bagrow,Peter Sheridan Dodds,Christopher M. Danforth
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Although climate change and energy are intricately linked, their explicit connection is not always prominent in public discourse and the media. Disruptive extreme weather events, including hurricanes, focus public attention in new and different ways, offering a unique window of opportunity to analyze how a focusing event influences public opinion. Simultaneously shaping and reflecting public discourse, media coverage of extreme weather events reflects public opinion of climate issues. Here we analyze climate and energy media coverage of Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) using topic models, mathematical techniques used to discover abstract topics within a set of documents. Our results demonstrate that post-Katrina media coverage does not contain a climate change topic, and the energy topic is limited to discussion of energy prices, markets, and the economy with almost no explicit linkages made between energy and climate change. In contrast, post-Sandy media coverage does contain a prominent climate change topic, a distinct energy topic, as well as integrated representation of climate change and energy.
A Smarter Grid for Renewable Energy: Different States of Action
Clark Koenigs,Mudita Suri,Amelia Kreiter,Caroline Elling,Julia Eagles,Tarla R. Peterson,Jennie C. Stephens,Elizabeth J. Wilson
Challenges , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/challe4020217
Abstract: Smart grid has strong potential to advance and encourage renewable energy deployment, but given the multiple motivations for smart grid, renewables are not always central in smart grid policy discussions. The term “smart grid” represents a set of technologies, including advanced meters, sensors and energy storage that are crucial for the integration of more renewable and low carbon electricity into the electric power grid. However, developing and building a smart grid is jurisdictionally complex, path dependent and context specific; states and regions are approaching grid modernization in different ways. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of smart grid development in seven U.S. states. We use state-level policy documents to learn what motivates smart grid development and how smart grid is framed in relation to renewable energy. In some states, renewable technologies are presented as an integral part of the smart grid policy discussion, while in others they are largely absent.
CAM for Pediatric Pain: What is State-of-the-Research?
Jennie C. I. Tsao
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nek003
Abstract: Previously, we reviewed the evidence for the efficacy of CAM approaches for pediatric pain (volume 2; issue 2; 2005) using criteria developed by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force. Our review focused on CAM modalities that had been tested with at least one controlled trial or multiple baseline study. In addition, only those trials in which children comprised the study sample were included. Thus, several CAM modalities were not included in our review. Key ethical and other reasons for the limited literature on CAM for pediatric pain as well as directions for future studies are discussed.
Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-Malignant Pain: A Review
Jennie C. I. Tsao
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel109
Abstract: Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain.
Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria-Myeloperoxidase Synergy in Establishing and Maintaining the Normal Flora in Man  [PDF]
Robert C. Allen, Jackson T. Stephens Jr.
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.411A009

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are incapable of cytochrome synthesis and lack the heme electron transport mechanisms required for efficient oxygen-based metabolism. Consequently, LAB redox activity is flavoenzyme-based and metabolism is fermentative, producing lactic acid, and in many cases, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Despite this seeming metabolic limitation, LAB dominate in the normal flora of the mouth, vagina and lower gastrointestinal tract in man. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is produced by the neutrophil leukocytes and monocytes that provide the innate phagocyte defense against infecting pathogens. MPO is unique in its ability to catalyze the H2O2-dependent oxidation of chloride (Cl-) to hypochlorite (OCl-). In turn, this OCl- directly reacts with a second H2O2 to produce singlet molecular oxygen (\"\"), a metastable electronic excitation state of oxygen with a microsecond lifetime that restricts its combustive reactivity within a submicron radius of its point of generation. Each day a healthy human adult produces about a hundred billion neutrophils containing about 4 femtograms MPO per neutrophil. Inflammatory states and G-CSF treatment increase both neutrophil production and the quantity of MPO per neutrophil. After a short circulating lifetime, neutrophils leave the blood and migrate into body spaces including the mouth, vagina, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Greater than a hundred thousand neutrophils are lavaged from the mouths of healthy humans; the quantity lavaged is proportional to the blood neutrophil count. MPO selectively and avidly binds to most Gram-positive and all Gram-negative bacteria tested, but LAB do not show significant MPO binding. Neutrophils migrating to normal flora sites release MPO into the LAB-conditioned milieu containing adequate acidity and H2O2 to support extra-phagocyte MPO microbicidal action. In combination, LAB plus MPO exert a potent synergistic microbicidal action against high MPO-binding microbes. This LAB-MPO synergy provides a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of LAB in the normal flora of man.

A new random mapping model
Jennie C. Hansen,Jerzy Jaworski
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We introduce a new random mapping model, $T_n^{\hat D}$, which maps the set $\{1,2,...,n\}$ into itself.The random mapping $T_n^{\hat D}$ is constructed using a collection of exchangeable random variables $\hat{D}_1, ....,\hat{D}_n$ which satisfy $\sum_{i=1}^n\hat{D}_i=n$. In the random digraph,$G_n^{\hat D}$, which represents the mapping $T_n^{\hat D}$, the in-degree sequence for the vertices is given by the variables $\hat{D}_1, \hat{D}_2, ..., \hat{D}_n$, and, in some sense,$G_n^{\hat D}$ can be viewed as an analogue of the general independent degree models from random graph theory. We show that the distribution of the number of cyclic points, the number of components,and the size of a typical component can be expressed in terms of expectations of various functions of $\hat{D}_1, \hat{D}_2, ..., \hat{D}_n$. We also consider two special examples of $T_n^{\hat D}$ which correspond to random mappings with preferential and anti-preferential attachment, respectively, and determine, for these examples, exact and asymptotic distributions for the statistics mentioned above.
The Expected Size of the Rule k Dominating Set
Jennie C. Hansen,Eric Schmutz
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Rule k is a localized approximation algorithm that finds a small connected dominating set in a graph. We estimate the expected size of the Rule k dominating set for the model of random unit disk graphs constructed from n random points in an s_n by s_n square region of the plane.
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