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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219937 matches for " Jenessa C. Steele "
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Decision Making Processes and Outcomes
Julie Hicks Patrick,Jenessa C. Steele,S. Melinda Spencer
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/367208
Abstract: The primary aim of this study was to examine the contributions of individual characteristics and strategic processing to the prediction of decision quality. Data were provided by 176 adults, ages 18 to 93 years, who completed computerized decision-making vignettes and a battery of demographic and cognitive measures. We examined the relations among age, domain-specific experience, working memory, and three measures of strategic information search to the prediction of solution quality using a 4-step hierarchical linear regression analysis. Working memory and two measures of strategic processing uniquely contributed to the variance explained. Results are discussed in terms of potential advances to both theory and intervention efforts. 1. Introduction 1.1. Decision Making Processes and Outcomes A significant body of research has examined problem solving and decision making performance in adulthood (see [1, 2] for reviews). Both problem solving and decision making are concerned with the ways in which people interpret problems, form goals, search information, and combine information to arrive at solutions. Researchers often employ think-aloud and other process-tracing techniques to investigate the processes governing information search and cessation [3, 4]. The extant literature demonstrates that relative to younger and middle-aged adults, older adults approach decision making with different goals, apply different heuristics, seek different amounts and types of information in the predecision phase, and offer different decisions (e.g., [4–6]). Research has examined several possible mechanisms to explain this age difference, including the role of cognitive resources (e.g., [5, 7]), the social context and personal experience [8, 9], affective context [10], and the decision domain [11]. Sophisticated studies have examined these factors individually and in combination [12]. For many decision tasks, basic and intermediate cognitive skills such as working memory and speed of processing often are the strongest predictor of decision outcome [13]. Process-tracing techniques may allow a more thorough examination of task performance and strategic processing [3, 4, 14, 15]. In the standard decision making task, materials are structured to reflect those available in the real-world, similar to the ecologically-rich social vignettes used in the everyday problem solving approach. Although in actual real-world information searches, people are able to view all of the available information simultaneously, an advantage to the process-tracing technique is that one is able to
The Probability Distribution of the Elastic Properties of Pure Metals  [PDF]
Clint Steele
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.56085
Abstract:

While there are many published data on the average properties of elasticity for metals, there is little on the expected randomness. This is despite the known randomness of the elasticity of the grains that make up metals. It seems implicitly assumed that due to pseudo-isotropy, the average is all that is of concern. But how does one know if this is always the case? By creating a simple model of a metal, it is shown that for typical metal samples the randomness is negligible. However, as samples become smaller, it is possible to estimate the randomness based on information about the properties of grains within the metal. Further, due to the central limit theorem, which is implied by the model, a Gaussian distribution can be expected. This can be used in an evolutionary approach to generating a distribution for further probabilistic analysis of a respective system.

Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Era of Rapid Followup
C. G. Mundell,C. Guidorzi,I. A. Steele
Advances in Astronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/718468
Abstract: We present a status report on the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the era of rapid followup using the world's largest robotic optical telescopes—the 2?m Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes. Within the context of key unsolved issues in GRB physics, we describe (1) our innovative software that allows real-time automatic analysis and interpretation of GRB light curves, (2) the novel instrumentation that allows unique types of observations (in particular, early time polarisation measurements), and (3) the key science questions and discoveries to which robotic observations are ideally suited, concluding with a summary of current understanding of GRB physics provided by combining rapid optical observations with simultaneous observations at other wavelengths. 1. Introduction Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosions in the Universe and, arguably, represent the most significant new astrophysical phenomenon since the discovery of quasars and pulsars. As their name suggests, GRBs are detected as brief, intense and totally unpredictable flashes of high-energy gamma rays, thought to be produced during the core collapse of massive stars (long-soft bursts, seconds) or the merger of two compact objects such as two neutron stars or a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole (short-hard bursts, seconds). Although discovered through their -ray emission [1], they are now known to emit nonthermal radiation detectable across the electromagnetic spectrum [2–4]. However, despite their enormous luminosity, their unpredictability and short duration limit rapid, accurate localisation and observability with traditional telescopes. Consequently, new ground and space-based facilities have been developed over the past decade; dedicated satellites optimised for GRB detection and followup, such as Swift [5], are revolutionizing GRB studies by locating 100 bursts per year with -ray positions accurate to and X-ray positions accurate to within seconds or minutes of the burst. Here we describe the automatic ground-based followup of GRBs with the world's largest robotic optical telescopes that use intelligent software and innovative instruments. The Era of Rapid Followup: Predictions and Outcomes Before the launch of current satellites such as Swift, Integral, and Fermi, significant progress in understanding GRBs had been made since their discovery, in particular the general and X-ray properties. The first crucial step in disseminating real-time GRB positions to ground observers was triggered by BATSE on the CGRO [6] through the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN) [7] via
The Internet of Things and Next-generation Public Health Information Systems  [PDF]
Robert Steele, Andrew Clarke
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B1002
Abstract: The Internet of things has particularly novel implications in the area of public health. This is due to (1) The rapid and widespread adoption of powerful contemporary Smartphone’s; (2) The increasing availability and use of health and fitness sensors, wearable sensor patches, smart watches, wireless-enabled digital tattoos and ambient sensors; and (3) The nature of public health to implicitly involve connectivity with and the acquisition of data in relation to large numbers of individuals up to population scale. Of particular relevance in relation to the Internet of Things (IoT) and public health is the need for privacy and anonymity of users. It should be noted that IoT capabilities are not inconsistent with maintaining privacy, due to the focus of public health on aggregate data not individual data and broad public health interventions. In addition, public health information systems utilizing IoT capabilities can be constructed to specifically ensure privacy, security and anonymity, as has been developed and evaluated in this work. In this paper we describe the particular characteristics of the IoT that can play a role in enabling emerging public health capabilities; we describe a privacy-preserving IoT-based public health information system architecture; and provide a privacy evaluation.
A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars
Cooke Georga PE,Doust Jenny A,Steele Michael C
BMC Medical Education , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-13-2
Abstract: Background Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP) registrars. Methods We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional survey of GP registrars in Australia from June to July 2010, recruited from a newsletter item or registrar education events. Survey measures included the Resilience Scale-14, a single-item scale for burnout, Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale, Personal Meaning in Patient Care scale, Intolerance of Uncertainty-12 scale, and Physician Response to Uncertainty scale. Results 128 GP registrars responded (response rate 90%). Fourteen percent of registrars were found to be at risk of burnout using the single-item scale for burnout, but none met the criteria for burnout using the ProQOL scale. Secondary traumatic stress, general intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety due to clinical uncertainty and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients were associated with being at higher risk of burnout, but sex, age, practice location, training duration, years since graduation, and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to physicians were not. Only ten percent of registrars had high resilience scores. Resilience was positively associated with compassion satisfaction and personal meaning in patient care. Resilience was negatively associated with burnout, secondary traumatic stress, inhibitory anxiety, general intolerance to uncertainty, concern about bad outcomes and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients. Conclusions GP registrars in this survey showed a lower level of burnout than in other recent surveys of the broader junior doctor population in both Australia and overseas. Resilience was also lower than might be expected of a satisfied and professionally successful cohort.
Massless Scalar Field Theory in a Quantised Space-Time
J. ~C. ~Breckenridge,T. ~G. ~Steele,V. Elias
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/12/3/004
Abstract: A method is developed to construct a non-local massless scalar field theory in a flat quantised space-time generated by an operator algebra. Implicit in the operator algebra is a fundamental length scale of the space-time. The fundamental two-point function of free fields is constructed by assuming that the causal Green functions still have support on the light cone in the operator algebra quantised space-time. In contrast to previous stochastic approaches, the method introduced here requires no explicit averaging over spacetime coordinates. The two- and four-point functions of~$g \varphi^4$ theory are calculated to the one-loop level, and no ultraviolet divergences are encountered. It is also demonstrated that there are no IR divergences in the processes considered.
The Nielsen Identities for the Two-Point Functions of QED and QCD
J. C. Breckenridge,M. J. Lavelle,T. G. Steele
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1007/BF01571316
Abstract: We consider the Nielsen identities for the two-point functions of full QCD and QED in the class of Lorentz gauges. For pedagogical reasons the identities are first derived in QED to demonstrate the gauge independence of the photon self-energy, and of the electron mass shell. In QCD we derive the general identity and hence the identities for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators. The explicit contributions to the gluon and ghost identities are calculated to one-loop order, and then we show that the quark identity requires that in on-shell schemes the quark mass renormalisation must be gauge independent. Furthermore, we obtain formal solutions for the gluon self-energy and ghost propagator in terms of the gauge dependence of other, independent Green functions.
Optimal Renormalization-Group Improvement of R(s) via the Method of Characteristics
V. Elias,D. G. C. McKeon,T. G. Steele
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X03015325
Abstract: We discuss the application of the method of characteristics to the renormalization-group equation for the perturbative QCD series within the electron-positron annihilation cross-section. We demonstrate how one such renormalization-group improvement of this series is equivalent to a closed-form summation of the first four towers of renormalization-group accessible logarithms to all orders of perturbation theory.
Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur
Jenessa Gjeltema,Michael Stoskopf,Damian Shea,Ryan De Voe
ISRN Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/309853
Abstract: Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species’ small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found in higher concentrations at the breeding site that allowed direct vehicular access, but calculated risk quotients indicated low risk to toad reproduction associated with the current PAH analyte levels. 1. Introduction The Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, is the only native toad species of Puerto Rico and has become a subject of conservation concern due to its small population size, limited breeding sites, and small geographic range [1–3]. Although several new populations have been established in Puerto Rico through captive-breeding and release programs, reproduction of the naturally wild population of this toad species is considered limited to a small region of coastline located in Guanica, Puerto Rico [4–8]. Based on direct observation of breeding events during heavy rainfall, the number of observed mature individuals declined from 1984 to 2003, with only 80 mature individuals recorded in 2003 [1, 9]. The majority of breeding for the naturally wild population is thought to occur at three distinct breeding sites within a several kilometer radius, and each of these three breeding sites contains at least one ephemeral pool that fills with water under adequate rainfall conditions [2]. The volume, surface area, depth, and duration of each of these temporary pools is dependent on the amount and frequency of rainfall that the region receives. A portion of the largest and most significant site for toad reproduction, the Tamarindo site, is accessible for vehicular parking by members of the public when the breeding pools are dry. This parking occurs directly over areas where breeding pools form when it rains. Vehicular traffic is associated with a wide variety of contaminants including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from incomplete combustion, exhaust, oil leaks, tire abrasion, asphalt, and other lubricants [10–14]. PAHs have been linked with many undesirable health consequences in humans and animals including carcinogenic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects [15–18]. Environmental exposure of amphibians to PAHs may cause such broad effects
Paper reports overview: Avoiding secondary insults in ICU
Adrian Steele
Critical Care , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/cc664
Abstract: Even an intervention as fundamental as intermittent positive pressure ventilation may be harmful if applied incorrectly and so the international consensus conference on ventilator-associated lung injury (VLI) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is timely. The animal data for VLI is now compelling, but the evidence in humans necessarily remains indirect. Nevertheless, the recently completed National Institutes of Health study has shown that protective ventilation strategies can improve outcome. The consensus conference also covers risk factors, incidence, monitoring, morbidity and prevention of VLI.Blood transfusion carries a small but quantifiable risk of infection with HIV and other organisms. Since the average transfusion requirement of intensive care unit (ICU) patients is around three units per week, it was pertinent to investigate whether recombinant human erythropoeitin (rHuEPO) would reduce the volume of blood given to ICU patients. Gettinger and colleagues demonstrated a cumulative reduction, in transfused blood, of nearly 50% in ICU patients treated with rHuEPO, but found no difference in mortality or adverse events. Treatment with rHuEPO was more expensive than blood transfusion, but in different healthcare systems or with increasing scarcity of blood this might not always be the case. Furthermore, the medico-legal consequences of this finding are potentially wide-ranging. Some Jehovah's Witnesses admitted to the ICU will demand treatment with rHUEPO, and the very rare patient who becomes infected after blood transfusion might in future ask what measures were taken to minimise transfusion requirement.Percutaneous tracheostomy is an example of an intervention which carries a risk of harm but is nevertheless widely perceived to be beneficial (despite the absence of data to support improved outcomes). Escarment and colleagues have published a case series of 162 patients, showing that the risks of the Griggs technique are real but relatively small, a
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