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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 94186 matches for " Jeffrey I. Gold "
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Revisiting the Sham: Is It all Smoke and Mirrors?
Brandon Horn,Judith Balk,Jeffrey I. Gold
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq074
Abstract: The misuse of sham controls in examining the efficacy or effectiveness of Complementary and Alternative Medicine has created numerous problems. The theoretical justification for incorporating a sham is questionable. The sham does not improve our control of bias and leads to relativistic data that, in most instances, has no appropriate interpretation with regards to treatment efficacy. Even the concept of a sham or placebo control in an efficacy trial is inherently paradoxical. Therefore, it is prudent to re-examine how we view sham controls in the context of medical research. Extreme caution should be used in giving weight to any sham-controlled study claiming to establish efficacy or safety.
Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants
Karen Livingston,Shay Beider,Alexis J. Kant,Constance C. Gallardo,Michael H. Joseph,Jeffrey I. Gold
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem076
Abstract: Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants.
Pediatric Acupuncture: A Review of Clinical Research
Jeffrey I. Gold,Colette D. Nicolaou,Katharine A. Belmont,Aaron R. Katz,Daniel M. Benaron,Wendy Yu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem181
Abstract: Practiced in China for more than 2000 years, acupuncture has recently gained increased attention in the United States as an alternative treatment approach for a variety of medical conditions. Despite its growing prevalence and anecdotal reports of success among pediatric populations, few empirically based studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture for children and adolescents. This article presents a review of the current literature, including a systematic appraisal of the methodological value of each study and a discussion of potential benefits and adverse effects of acupuncture. While acupuncture holds great promise as a treatment modality for diverse pediatric conditions, a significant amount of additional research is necessary to establish an empirical basis for the incorporation of acupuncture into standard care.
Unlocking Biomarker Discovery: Large Scale Application of Aptamer Proteomic Technology for Early Detection of Lung Cancer
Rachel M. Ostroff,William L. Bigbee,Wilbur Franklin,Larry Gold,Mike Mehan,York E. Miller,Harvey I. Pass,William N. Rom,Jill M. Siegfried,Alex Stewart,Jeffrey J. Walker,Joel L. Weissfeld,Stephen Williams,Dom Zichi,Edward N. Brody
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015003
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. New diagnostics are needed to detect early stage lung cancer because it may be cured with surgery. However, most cases are diagnosed too late for curative surgery. Here we present a comprehensive clinical biomarker study of lung cancer and the first large-scale clinical application of a new aptamer-based proteomic technology to discover blood protein biomarkers in disease.
Nuclear Translocation of Cardiac G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Downstream of Select Gq-Activating Hypertrophic Ligands Is a Calmodulin-Dependent Process
Jessica I. Gold, Jeffrey S. Martini, Jonathan Hullmann, Erhe Gao, J. Kurt Chuprun, Linda Lee, Douglas G. Tilley, Joseph E. Rabinowitz, Julie Bossuyt, Donald M. Bers, Walter J. Koch
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057324
Abstract: G protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) kinases (GRKs) play a crucial role in regulating cardiac hypertrophy. Recent data from our lab has shown that, following ventricular pressure overload, GRK5, a primary cardiac GRK, facilitates maladaptive myocyte growth via novel nuclear localization. In the nucleus, GRK5’s newly discovered kinase activity on histone deacetylase 5 induces hypertrophic gene transcription. The mechanisms governing the nuclear targeting of GRK5 are unknown. We report here that GRK5 nuclear accumulation is dependent on Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) binding to a specific site within the amino terminus of GRK5 and this interaction occurs after selective activation of hypertrophic Gq-coupled receptors. Stimulation of myocytes with phenylephrine or angiotensinII causes GRK5 to leave the sarcolemmal membrane and accumulate in the nucleus, while the endothelin-1 does not cause nuclear GRK5 localization. A mutation within the amino-terminus of GRK5 negating CaM binding attenuates GRK5 movement from the sarcolemma to the nucleus and, importantly, overexpression of this mutant does not facilitate cardiac hypertrophy and related gene transcription in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that CaM binding to GRK5 is a physiologically relevant event that is absolutely required for nuclear GRK5 localization downstream of hypertrophic stimuli, thus facilitating GRK5-dependent regulation of maladaptive hypertrophy.
Computer Vision Systems in Road Vehicles: A Review
Kristian Kova?i,Edouard Ivanjko,Hrvoje Gold
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The number of road vehicles significantly increased in recent decades. This trend accompanied a build-up of road infrastructure and development of various control systems to increase road traffic safety, road capacity and travel comfort. In traffic safety significant development has been made and today's systems more and more include cameras and computer vision methods. Cameras are used as part of the road infrastructure or in vehicles. In this paper a review on computer vision systems in vehicles from the stand point of traffic engineering is given. Safety problems of road vehicles are presented, current state of the art in-vehicle vision systems is described and open problems with future research directions are discussed.
A Healthy Fear of the Unknown: Perspectives on the Interpretation of Parameter Fits from Computational Models in Neuroscience
Matthew R. Nassar,Joshua I. Gold
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003015
Abstract: Fitting models to behavior is commonly used to infer the latent computational factors responsible for generating behavior. However, the complexity of many behaviors can handicap the interpretation of such models. Here we provide perspectives on problems that can arise when interpreting parameter fits from models that provide incomplete descriptions of behavior. We illustrate these problems by fitting commonly used and neurophysiologically motivated reinforcement-learning models to simulated behavioral data sets from learning tasks. These model fits can pass a host of standard goodness-of-fit tests and other model-selection diagnostics even when the models do not provide a complete description of the behavioral data. We show that such incomplete models can be misleading by yielding biased estimates of the parameters explicitly included in the models. This problem is particularly pernicious when the neglected factors are unknown and therefore not easily identified by model comparisons and similar methods. An obvious conclusion is that a parsimonious description of behavioral data does not necessarily imply an accurate description of the underlying computations. Moreover, general goodness-of-fit measures are not a strong basis to support claims that a particular model can provide a generalized understanding of the computations that govern behavior. To help overcome these challenges, we advocate the design of tasks that provide direct reports of the computational variables of interest. Such direct reports complement model-fitting approaches by providing a more complete, albeit possibly more task-specific, representation of the factors that drive behavior. Computational models then provide a means to connect such task-specific results to a more general algorithmic understanding of the brain.
The potential of using botanical insecticides for the control of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
W Tinzaara, W Tushemereirwe, CK Nankinga, CS Gold, I Kashaija
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Crude extracts of chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach L.), mexican marigold (Tagates spp.), water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes, Martius) and Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) were tested for their effect on weevil mortality, settling responses and oviposition in the laboratory. All extracts of the botanicals did not show significant effects on weevil mortality compared to controls. Weevil settling responses on corms treated with extracts of botanicals compared to controls were statistically similar after 1 h and 72 h of observation. Oviposition was significantly low on corms treated with M. azedarach, Tagetes spp and R. communis compared to controls. Oviposition on corms treated with water hyacinth extracts was not statistically different from oviposition on controls. The data indicates that botanicals possess limited insecticidal properties but the potential of M. azedarach, Tagetes spp and R. communis to control the weevil through preventing oviposition needs further investigation.
A Mixture of Delta-Rules Approximation to Bayesian Inference in Change-Point Problems
Robert C. Wilson ,Matthew R. Nassar,Joshua I. Gold
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003150
Abstract: Error-driven learning rules have received considerable attention because of their close relationships to both optimal theory and neurobiological mechanisms. However, basic forms of these rules are effective under only a restricted set of conditions in which the environment is stable. Recent studies have defined optimal solutions to learning problems in more general, potentially unstable, environments, but the relevance of these complex mathematical solutions to how the brain solves these problems remains unclear. Here, we show that one such Bayesian solution can be approximated by a computationally straightforward mixture of simple error-driven ‘Delta’ rules. This simpler model can make effective inferences in a dynamic environment and matches human performance on a predictive-inference task using a mixture of a small number of Delta rules. This model represents an important conceptual advance in our understanding of how the brain can use relatively simple computations to make nearly optimal inferences in a dynamic world.
Exogenous Interferon-α and Interferon-γ Increase Lethality of Murine Inhalational Anthrax
Jeffrey A. Gold, Yoshihiko Hoshino, Marcus B. Jones, Satomi Hoshino, Anna Nolan, Michael D. Weiden
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000736
Abstract: Background Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of inhalational anthrax, is a facultative intracellular pathogen. Despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy, the mortality from inhalational anthrax approaches 45%, underscoring the need for better adjuvant therapies. The variable latency between exposure and development of disease suggests an important role for the host's innate immune response. Type I and Type II Interferons (IFN) are prominent members of the host innate immune response and are required for control of intracellular pathogens. We have previously described a protective role for exogenous Type I and Type II IFNs in attenuating intracellular B.anthracis germination and macrophage cell death in vitro. Methodology and Principal Findings We sought to extend these findings in an in vivo model of inhalational anthrax, utilizing the Sterne strain (34F2) of B.anthracis. Mice devoid of STAT1, a component of IFN-α and IFN-γ signaling, had a trend towards increased mortality, bacterial germination and extrapulmonary spread of B.anthracis at 24 hrs. This was associated with impaired IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 production. However, administration of exogenous IFN-γ, and to a lesser extent IFN-α, at the time of infection, markedly increased lethality. While IFNs were able to reduce the fraction of germinated spores within the lung, they increased both the local and systemic inflammatory response manifest by increases in IL-12 and reductions in IL-10. This was associated with an increase in extrapulmonary dissemination. The mechanism of IFN mediated inflammation appears to be in part due to STAT1 independent signaling. Conclusions In conclusion, while endogenous IFNs are essential for control of B.anthracis germination and lethality, administration of exogenous IFNs appear to increase the local inflammatory response, thereby increasing mortality.
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