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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224765 matches for " Jeffrey C. Milder "
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Trends and Future Potential of Payment for Ecosystem Services to Alleviate Rural Poverty in Developing Countries
Jeffrey C. Milder,Sara J. Scherr,Carina Bracer
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is a market-based approach to environmental management that compensates land stewards for ecosystem conservation and restoration. Because low-income households and communities control much of the ecologically sensitive land in developing countries, they potentially stand to gain from PES, as environmentally responsible stewardship is assigned a value by various actors in society. To date, however, instances of PES benefiting the poor have been limited mainly to specific localities, small-scale projects, and a handful of broader government programs. We analyze the size, characteristics, and trends of PES to evaluate its future potential to benefit low-income land stewards in developing countries. We estimate that by the year 2030, markets for biodiversity conservation could benefit 10–15 million low-income households in developing countries, carbon markets could benefit 25–50 million, markets for watershed protection could benefit 80–100 million, and markets for landscape beauty and recreation could benefit 5–8 million. If payments and markets reach these potentials, they could provide a non-negligible contribution to poverty alleviation at the global level.
Sustained Maximal Voluntary Contraction Produces Independent Changes in Human Motor Axons and the Muscle They Innervate
David A. Milder, Emily J. Sutherland, Simon C. Gandevia, Penelope A. McNulty
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091754
Abstract: The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG) and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05), reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at ?5.9% at ~35 min (p<0.05). This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV) for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05) whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12) and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15) force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity suggests that care is needed when using these measures if the integrity of either the muscle or nerve may be compromised.
Inhibitory roles of protein kinase B and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator on hepatic HMG-CoA reductase promoter activity  [PDF]
Gene C. Ness, Jeffrey L. Edelman
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.410A3001
Abstract:

Since we had previously demonstrated that siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) markedly inhibited insulin stimulation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) transcription, we investigated the effects of transfecting rat liver with TTP constructs. We found that transfecting diabetic rats with TTP did not increase HMGR transcription but rather led to modest inhibition. We then investigated whether co-transfection with protein kinase B, hepatic form (AKT2), might lead to phosphorylation and result in activation of HMGR transcription. We found that this treatment resulted in near complete inhibition of transcription. Transfection with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator (PGC-1a) also inhibited HMGR transcription. These results show that although TTP is needed for activation of HMGR transcription, it cannot by itself activate this process. AKT2 and PGC-1a, which mediate the activation of gluconeogenic genes by insulin, exert the opposite effect on HMGR.

An Improved EZW Hyperspectral Image Compression  [PDF]
Kai-Jen Cheng, Jeffrey C. Dill
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.22006
Abstract:

The paper describes an efficient lossy and lossless three dimensional (3D) image compression of hyperspectral images. The method adopts the 3D spatial-spectral hybrid transform and the proposed transform-based coder. The hybrid transforms are that Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) which decorrelates spectral data of a hyperspectral image, and the integer Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) which is applied to the spatial data and produces decorrelated wavelet coefficients. Our simpler transform-based coder is inspired by Shapiro’s EZW algorithm, but encodes residual values and only implements dominant pass incorporating six symbols. The proposed method will be examined on AVIRIS images and evaluated using compression ratio for both lossless and lossy compression, and signal to noise ratio (SNR) for lossy compression. Experimental results show that the proposed image compression not only is more efficient but also has better compression ratio.

A??o Coletiva, Cultura e Sociedade Civil: Seculariza??o, atualiza??o, invers?o, revis?o e deslocamento do modelo clássico dos movimentos sociais
Alexander, Jeffrey C.;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69091998000200001
Abstract: the article draws upon the discussion of the work of the french sociologist alain touraine in order to put forward a conceptualization of the relationship between social movements and civil society in a neofunctionalist framework. challenging the marxist model and those which share its utilitarian assumptions, though not necessarily teleological, the author emphasizes the symbolic and cultural elements in the constitution of social movements and the role of contingency in history. he also criticizes the idea that the "new social movements" might have a revolutionary character. alternatively, he sustains that social movements are the translation of civil society, whithin which inclusions and exclusions, as well as the very community, are defined. social movements operate also an articulation, to a great extent of a discursive character, of the problems in particular institutional spheres of society with the metalanguage of civil society.
Stellar Chromospheric Activity
Hall Jeffrey C.
Living Reviews in Solar Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1) outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2) discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3) review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4) summarize the outstanding problems today.
On the Autonomy of the Aesthetic: Witkin I versus Witkin II
Jeffrey C. Alexander
Music and Arts in Action , 2009,
Abstract: A commentary on Robert Witkin’s The Aesthetic Imperative of a Rational-Technical Machinery.
A o Coletiva, Cultura e Sociedade Civil: Seculariza o, atualiza o, invers o, revis o e deslocamento do modelo clássico dos movimentos sociais
Alexander Jeffrey C.
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 1998,
Abstract: O artigo se apóia numa discuss o da obra do sociólogo francês Alain Touraine para encaminhar uma conceitua o da rela o entre movimentos sociais e sociedade civil nos quadros do neofuncionalismo. Desafiando o modelo marxista clássico e outros que de algum modo compartilham com ele supostos utilitários, embora nem sempre teleológicos, o autor enfatiza o elemento simbólico e cultural na constitui o dos movimentos sociais e o papel da contingência no desenho da história, criticando ainda a idéia de que os "novos movimentos sociais" teriam um caráter revolucionário. Alternativamente, postula que os movimentos sociais s o uma tradu o da sociedade civil, dentro da qual inclus es e exclus es da vida social, a própria idéia de comunidade, s o definidas. Estes movimentos operam uma articula o, em grande medida de caráter discursivo, dos problemas de esferas institucionais particulares da sociedade com a metalinguagem da sociedade civil.
Factors Influencing Dropouts' GED & Diploma Attainment
Jeffrey C. Wayman
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2001,
Abstract: This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED) from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.
Group cohomology construction of the cohomology of moduli spaces of flat connections on 2-manifolds
Lisa C. Jeffrey
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: We use group cohomology and the de Rham complex on simplicial manifolds to give explicit differential forms representing generators of the cohomology rings of moduli spaces of representations of fundamental groups of 2-manifolds. These generators are constructed using the de Rham representatives for the cohomology of classifying spaces $BK$ where $K$ is a compact Lie group; such representatives (universal characteristic classes) were found by Bott and Shulman. Thus our representatives for the generators of the cohomology of moduli spaces are given explicitly in terms of the Maurer-Cartan form. This work solves a problem posed by Weinstein, who gave a corresponding construction (following Karshon and Goldman) of the symplectic forms on these moduli spaces. We also give a corresponding construction of equivariant differential forms on the extended moduli space $X$, which is a finite dimensional symplectic space equipped with a Hamiltonian action of $K$ for which the symplectic reduced space is the moduli space of representations of the 2-manifold fundamental group in $K$. (This paper is in press in Duke Math. J. The substance of the text is unaltered; inor changes and corrections have been made to the file to correspond to the version that will be published.)
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