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Since we had previously
demonstrated that siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) markedly inhibited insulin
stimulation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) transcription, we
investigated the effects of transfecting
rat liver with TTP constructs. We found that transfecting diabetic rats with
TTP did not increase HMGR transcription but rather led to modest inhibition.
We then investigated whether co-transfection with protein kinase B, hepatic form (AKT2), might lead to phosphorylation
and result in activation of HMGR transcription. We found that this treatment
resulted in near complete inhibition of transcription. Transfection with
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator
(PGC-1a) also inhibited HMGR transcription.
These results show that although TTP is needed for activation of HMGR transcription,
it cannot by itself activate this process. AKT2 and PGC-1a, which mediate the activation of gluconeogenic
genes by insulin, exert the opposite effect on HMGR.
The paper describes an efficient lossy and
lossless three dimensional (3D) image compression of hyperspectral images. The
method adopts the 3D spatial-spectral hybrid transform and the proposed
transform-based coder. The hybrid transforms are that Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) which decorrelates spectral data of a hyperspectral
image, and the integer Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) which is applied to the
spatial data and produces decorrelated wavelet coefficients. Our simpler
transform-based coder is inspired by Shapiro’s EZW algorithm, but encodes
residual values and only implements dominant pass incorporating six symbols.
The proposed method will be examined on AVIRIS images and evaluated using compression ratio for both lossless and lossy compression,
and signal to noise ratio (SNR) for lossy compression. Experimental results
show that the proposed image compression not only is more efficient but also
has better compression ratio.