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A Spontaneous Dominant-Negative Mutation within a 35S::AtMYB90 Transgene Inhibits Flower Pigment Production in Tobacco
Jeff Velten,Cahid Cakir,Christopher I. Cazzonelli
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009917
Abstract: In part due to the ease of visual detection of phenotypic changes, anthocyanin pigment production has long been the target of genetic and molecular research in plants. Specific members of the large family of plant myb transcription factors have been found to play critical roles in regulating expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and these genes continue to serve as important tools in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of plant gene regulation.
Plant viral intergenic DNA sequence repeats with transcription enhancing activity
Jeff Velten, Kevin J Morey, Christopher I Cazzonelli
Virology Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-2-16
Abstract: DNA sequences from the intergenic regions of 29 geminiviruses or nanoviruses were scanned for repeated sequence elements to be tested for transcription enhancing activity. 105 elements were identified and placed immediately upstream from a minimal plant-functional promoter fused to an intron-containing luciferase reporter gene. Transient luciferase activity was measured within Agrobacteria-infused Nicotiana tobacum leaf tissue. Of the 105 elements tested, 14 were found to reproducibly elevate reporter gene activity (>25% increase over that from the minimal promoter-reporter construct, p < 0.05), while 91 elements failed to increase luciferase activity. A previously described "conserved late element" (CLE) was identified within tested repeats from 5 different viral species was found to have intrinsic enhancer activity in the absence of viral gene products. The remaining 9 active elements have not been previously demonstrated to act as functional promoter components.Biological significance for the active DNA elements identified is supported by repeated isolation of a previously defined viral element (CLE), and the finding that two of three viral enhancer elements examined were markedly enriched within both geminivirus sequences and within Arabidopsis promoter regions. These data provide a useful starting point for virologists interested in undertaking more detailed analysis of geminiviral promoter function.Traditionally, analyses of viral promoter structure-function relationship have involved directed deletion or disruption of promoter structure, followed by determination of resulting changes in transcription, if any, resulting from the alterations [1]. A relatively small subset of the promoter elements identified in this way have been subsequently isolated and tested for their ability to influence transcription when inserted into alternative, well defined, basal promoters [2]. As an alternative to so-called 'promoter bashing' approaches to the study of promoter struc
Transgene Silencing and Transgene-Derived siRNA Production in Tobacco Plants Homozygous for an Introduced AtMYB90 Construct
Jeff Velten, Cahid Cakir, Eunseog Youn, Junping Chen, Christopher I. Cazzonelli
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030141
Abstract: Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines were engineered to ectopically over-express AtMYB90 (PAP2), an R2–R3 Myb gene associated with regulation of anthocyanin production in Arabidopsis thaliana. Independently transformed transgenic lines, Myb27 and Myb237, accumulated large quantities of anthocyanin, generating a dark purple phenotype in nearly all tissues. After self-fertilization, some progeny of the Myb27 line displayed an unexpected pigmentation pattern, with most leaves displaying large sectors of dramatically reduced anthocyanin production. The green-sectored 27Hmo plants were all found to be homozygous for the transgene and, despite a doubled transgene dosage, to have reduced levels of AtMYB90 mRNA. The observed reduction in anthocyanin pigmentation and AtMYB90 mRNA was phenotypically identical to the patterns seen in leaves systemically silenced for the AtMYB90 transgene, and was associated with the presence of AtMYB90-derived siRNA homologous to both strands of a portion of the AtMYB90 transcribed region. Activation of transgene silencing in the Myb27 line was triggered when the 35S::AtMYB90 transgene dosage was doubled, in both Myb27 homozygotes, and in plants containing one copy of each of the independently segregating Myb27 and Myb237 transgene loci. Mapping of sequenced siRNA molecules to the Myb27 TDNA (including flanking tobacco sequences) indicated that the 3′ half of the AtMYB90 transcript is the primary target for siRNA associated silencing in both homozygous Myb27 plants and in systemically silenced tissues. The transgene within the Myb27 line was found to consist of a single, fully intact, copy of the AtMYB90 construct. Silencing appears to initiate in response to elevated levels of transgene mRNA (or an aberrant product thereof) present within a subset of leaf cells, followed by spread of the resulting small RNA to adjacent leaf tissues and subsequent amplification of siRNA production.
Viscous Cold Dark Matter in agreement with observations
Hermano Velten
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We discuss bulk viscous cosmological models. Since the bulk viscous pressure is negative, viable viscous cosmological scenarios with late time accelerated expansion can in principle be constructed. After discussing some alternative models based on bulk viscous effects we will focus on a model very similar to the standard $\Lambda$CDM. We argue that a $\Lambda${\rm v}CDM model, where we assign a very small (albeit perceptible) bulk viscosity to dark matter is in agreement with available cosmological observations. Hence, we work with the concept of viscous Cold Dark Matter ({\rm v}CDM). At the level of the perturbations, the growth of {\rm v}CDM structures is slightly suppressed when compared with the standard CDM ones. Having in mind that the small scale problems of the $\Lambda$CDM model are related to an excess of clustering, our proposal seems to indicate a possible direction for solving the serious drawbacks of the CDM paradigm within the standard cosmological model.
Improving the Dietary Protein Quality by Amino Acid Fortification with a High Inclusion Level of Micro Algae (Spirulina platensis) or Insect Meal (Hermetia illucens) in Meat Type Chicken Diets  [PDF]
Carmen Neumann, Susanne Velten, Frank Liebert
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2018.81002
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure protein quality parameters (PPV, NPU and NPUstd) of chicken diets with complete substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by Spirulina meal (SM) or partly defatted Hermetia meal (HM). N balance experiments were based on the quantitative excreta collection method, divided into starter period (10 - 20 d) and grower period (25 - 35 d). The study utilized 70 all male meat type chicken (Ross 308). Data assessment applied the exponential N utilization model of the “Goettingen approach”. The control diet was based on wheat, corn and SBM. In four experimental diets SBM was completely substituted by SM or HM, but fortified with feed amino acids (AA) both on a basic level of supplementation (Lys and Met added equal to the control diet) and on an extended level (Lys, Met, Thr, Arg, Val, Ile, His added). At a basic level of AA supplementation, complete replacement of SBM by SM or HM in chicken diets depressed dietary protein quality significantly (p < 0.05). However, the extended level of AA supplementation improved protein quality parameters of the diets with both of the alternative proteins significantly (p < 0.05), but still generally not on par with the control diet. The observed responses were accentuated when the well-known effect of N intake on protein utilization was eliminated through the standardization of N intake by application of the “Goettingen approach”.
The Graded Inclusion of Algae (Spirulina platensis) or Insect (Hermetia illucens) Meal as a Soybean Meal Substitute in Meat Type Chicken Diets Impacts on Growth, Nutrient Deposition and Dietary Protein Quality Depending on the Extent of Amino Acid Supplementation  [PDF]
Carmen Neumann, Susanne Velten, Frank Liebert
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2018.82012
Abstract: Three consecutive growth experiments were conducted to evaluate growth performance, whole body analyses and protein quality parameters from chicken diets with 50%, 75% and 100% substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by Spirulina meal (SM) or partly defatted Hermetia meal (HM). Each of the experiments was divided into a starter period (1 - 21 d) and a grower period (22 - 34 d). One-day-old male growing chickens (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 48 floor pens making use of 6 birds/pen (Exp.1) or 7 birds/pen (Exp. 2, 3), and the experiments included a control diet (n = 12) and four experimental diets (n = 9). Experiment 1 examined a 50 % replacement of SBM by the alternative proteins under study, both on a basic and an advanced level of amino acid (AA) fortification to meet the recommended ideal amino acid ratio (IAAR). In experiment 2, 75% (starter diet) and 50% (grower diet) replacement of SBM was investigated. Experiment 3 investigated the effects of complete SBM substitution by SM or HM in starter and grower diets. In the second and third experiment diets with both of the alternative proteins and the control diet were AA supplemented to meet the current IAAR. In a further step, the calculated first limiting AA (LAA) was reduced to 80% of its requirement recommendation to allow for further evaluation of the individual AA efficiency according to the Goettingen approach. Different levels (50%, 75%, or 100%) of replacing SBM by HM or SM in chicken diets depressed dietary protein quality (p <
Albert Ellis (1913-2007)
Leonor Lega,Emmett Velten
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología , 2008,
Power spectrum for the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter
Hermano Velten,Etienne Wamba
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.01.071
Abstract: We assume that dark matter is composed of scalar particles that form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at some point during the cosmic evolution. Afterwards, cold dark matter is in the form of a condensate and behaves slightly different from the standard dark matter component. We study the large scale perturbative dynamics of the BEC dark matter in a model where this component coexists with baryonic matter and cosmological constant. The perturbative dynamics is studied using neo- Newtonian cosmology (where the pressure is dynamically relevant for the homogeneous and isotropic background) which is assumed to be correct for small values of the sound speed. We show that BEC dark matter effects can be seen in the matter power spectrum if the mass of the condensate particle lies in the range 15meV < m < 700meV leading to a small, but perceptible, excess of power at large scales.
Exploring non-linear cosmological matter diffusion coefficients
Hermano Velten,Simone Calogero
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Since microscopic velocity diffusion can be incorporated into general relativity in a consistent way, we study cosmological background solutions when the diffusion phenomena takes place in an expanding universe. Our focus here relies on the nature of the diffusion coefficient $\sigma$ which measures the magnitude of such transport phenomena. We test dynamics where $\sigma$ has a phenomenological dependence on the scale factor, the matter density, the dark energy and the expansion rate.
Cosmology with matter diffusion
Simone Calogero,Hermano Velten
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/11/025
Abstract: We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field $\phi$ which we identify with the dark energy component of the Universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter $\sigma$. The standard $\Lambda$CDM model can be recovered by setting $\sigma=0$. If diffusion takes place ($\sigma >0$) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the Universe can serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the Universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum $P(k)$. The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.
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