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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 658 matches for " Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan "
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Advances in Regenerative Medicine: From Stem Cells to Organoids  [PDF]
Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.612012
Abstract:
Stem cells have moved from lab to bedside, and many initial studies showed promising results. Therefore big companies are entering the business. However, most initial studies did not used controls to make sure of the efficacy of stem cells. Many phase-1 studies showed safety of stem cell therapies, when precaution measures were adapted. However, efficacy needs to be proven by randomized controlled trials (RCT) to exclude placebo effects. Recently, various RCTs for various conditions have been done with various contradictory results. Therefore, a meta-analysis is very useful to know whether a stem cell therapy really work for a certain condition. As various centres used various type of stem cells, various dose, and route of application, as well as different outcome measures with various results for one certain condition, sometimes it is difficult to conduct a meta-analysis when there is high heterogeneity, which is like pooling “apples” with “oranges” and “avocado” that will lead to a misleading conclusion. In many cases, where the studies are highly heterogeneous, and the heterogeneity can’t be identified, then a descriptive systematic review is the best solution to take a conclusion which protocol is the best and valuable to be standardized. Formerly it was believed that stem cells that are given to patients work by differentiating into the needed cells, and thus replacing damaged cell. However, recent evidence showed that only a few stem cells homed to the desired area, while a large amount went to various areas that were remote from the damaged area. Even though they were trapped in remote areas, the stem cells still exerted beneficial effects by remote signalling and secretion of various beneficial factors. Therefore, there are attempts to produce stem cell secretomes/metabolites to replace the stem cells, as metabolites are easier to handle and transported compared to the cells themselves. In addition, various studies worked on substitute tissue/organs “ex vivo” to be transplanted to replace a damaged organ. There are various means to produce a tissue/an organ/organoid “ex vivo” (tissue engineering) by using various stem cells, scaffold, and soluble factors, in various vessels from static vessel to bioreactors, and “on chips”. Though these attempts are in the initial stage, but some translational animal studies have been done. A more usual use of these “ex vivo” developed tissues/organs/organoids is for drug testing, such as toxicity testing, and for studying the mechanism of certain diseases that is directed
Prospect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Genetic Repair to Cure Genetic Diseases
Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan
Stem Cells International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/498197
Abstract: In genetic diseases, where the cells are already damaged, the damaged cells can be replaced by new normal cells, which can be differentiated from iPSC. To avoid immune rejection, iPSC from the patient’s own cell can be developed. However, iPSC from the patients’s cell harbors the same genetic aberration. Therefore, before differentiating the iPSCs into required cells, genetic repair should be done. This review discusses the various technologies to repair the genetic aberration in patient-derived iPSC, or to prevent the genetic aberration to cause further damage in the iPSC-derived cells, such as Zn finger and TALE nuclease genetic editing, RNA interference technology, exon skipping, and gene transfer method. In addition, the challenges in using the iPSC and the strategies to manage the hurdles are addressed.
Prospect of Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine
Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan
Cell & Tissue Transplantation & Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) have similar properties to the previously characterized bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). However, adipose tissue is easier to get in larger volumes, the procedure is less painful and at lower risks, and yield more stem cells compared to bone marrow. Moreover, considering the various differentiation and angiogenic potentials, the ease in collecting the samples, and the immuno-suppressive properties, adipose tissue stem cells are very promising for regenerative medicine, and therefore will be the preferred source of MSCs for future clinical use.
Melamine Contaminated Food: Serious Threat to Our Health
Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan
Primary Prevention Insights , 2012,
Abstract: Commentary by Dr Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan, Department of Histology Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia Jl. Salemba 6, Jakarta Pusat, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.
Potential Agents against Plasma Leakage
Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan
ISRN Pharmacology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/975048
Abstract:
DIRECT MN TEST ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD TO DETECT CHROMOSOMAL BREAKAGE: APPLICATION IN SMOKERS
Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan,Retno Wilujeng Susilowati
Makara Seri Kesehatan , 2002,
Abstract: The purpose was to assess chromosomal damage in blood mononuclear cells of smokers. Smoker’s peripheral blood samples were screened for micronuclei. Samples from smokers who had an illness were excluded. From each sample, 500 swelled mononuclear leucocytes were screened using a light microscope, with 400x magnification. Frequency distribution of subjects having 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 micronuclei (MN) according to age and condition were tabulated. From the 102 samples, 5 were excluded, and only 97 were analyzed. There was an increase in MN count in 12.8%, 12.9%, 33.3%, and 25% of normal smokers living in unpolluted area, hypertensive smokers living in unpolluted area, normal smokers living in polluted area, and hypertensive smokers living in polluted area, respectively. Therefore, there was a tendency of increasing MN count in smokers in the productive age group, hypertensive people, and people livingin polluted area.
Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance
Sukwan Handali,Yudi Pawitan
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/974950
Abstract: Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs. 1. Introduction Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common infections of the world’s poorest people and the leading causes of chronic disability and poverty in low- and middle-income countries [1, 2]. As a result, global health policy makers have identified NTD control as a key element central to any strategy designed to achieve the United Nations millennium development goals (MDGs) for sustainable poverty reduction [2]. Several large-scale interventions to control and then to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, helminthiasis, trachoma, and yaws have been conducted [1]. Molyneux et al. [3] defined control as the reduction of disease incidence, elimination as the reduction to zero incidence of a specified disease in a defined geographical area, and eradication as the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection. However, the methods to measure disease reduction, elimination, or eradication are not established for many NTDs [1]. For lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis campaigns, antibody detection has been proposed as a measure of program success [3–6]. Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is one of the parasitic diseases that has been deemed eradicable [6]. Strategies for the elimination of cysticercosis have been tested extensively in Peru. Some of the variables evaluated included mass treatment of taeniasis cases, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination [7–13]. Successful elimination of cysticercosis will probably require that two conditions reach the zero level: the prevalence of human taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis (Figure 1). Once the interventions are deemed effective, the next step is the selection of methods to measure program success. An extensive array of laboratory tests exists for the detection of human and porcine cysticercosis and taeniasis. The value of any of these tools for program verification is unknown. Furthermore, the
Breastfeeding and obesity: a meta-analysis  [PDF]
Jeanne M. Stolzer
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13013
Abstract: Over the last decade, obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Comorbidities associated with overweight and obesity include, but are not limited to, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and elevated cholesterol levels. As a direct result of obesity, data indicates that these diseases are now being detected in an unprecedented number of American children, adolescents, and adults. Although the major cause of the obesity epidemic in America has thus far been attributed to excessive caloric intake and lack of physical activity, this paper will explore the pivotal role that breastfeeding plays in the prevention of overweight and obesity throughout the life course. Epidemiological data demonstrates that breastfeeding significantly reduces the incidence of overweight and obesity and that exclusive and long term breastfeeding has been strongly correlated with a reduction in LDL cholesterol, blood pressure related disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular dysfunction. While it is certain that diet and exer cise are integral factors associated with overweight and obesity, the time has come for a collective recognition of the protective effects associated with breastfeeding if we are serious in our endeavor to eradicate the overweight and obesity epidemic in America.
The Conversational Outcomes of Task Implementation  [PDF]
Jeanne Rolin-Ianziti
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41010
Abstract:

Arguing that tasks are primarily a resource to deploy interactions in the classroom, the present study uses a conversation analysis framework to investigate forms of talk resulting from the implementation of the task-based language teaching approach (TBLT) in the second language (L2) classroom. On the basis of three extracts selected from naturally occurring conversations between second semester beginners in French and their teacher as they are completing a comprehension task and a production task in situ, the study uncovers five types of interactions, respectively labeled the teaching interaction, the L1 to L2 how do you say exchange, the correctness interaction, the correction interaction and the repair exchange. Variations across types are apparent in the turn-taking system and in the sequential organization of the interactions. The variations are explained by referring to the characteristics of the two tasks as work plans, as well as to the contextual factors (i.e. the underlying activity and the classroom organization) that are put into place during the implementation of the tasks. Finally, the teaching implications of the study’s findings are discussed, arguing that this kind of research may be useful for teacher training purposes insofar as it provides classroom input to reflect upon the processes at play during TBLT implementation.

Normalization of oligonucleotide arrays based on the least-variant set of genes
Stefano Calza, Davide Valentini, Yudi Pawitan
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-140
Abstract: We develop a new algorithm based on identification of the least-variant set (LVS) of genes across the arrays. The array-to-array variation is evaluated in the robust linear model fit of pre-normalized probe-level data. The genes are then used as a reference set for a non-linear normalization. The method is applicable to any existing expression summaries, such as MAS5 or RMA.We show that LVS normalization outperforms other normalization methods when the standard assumptions are not satisfied. In the complex spike-in study, LVS performs similarly to the ideal (in practice unknown) housekeeping-gene normalization. An R package called lvs is available in http://www.meb.ki.se/~yudpaw webcite.High-throughput microarray technologies are becoming the norm in genetic and molecular research. Nevertheless, some steps in the preprocessing of the data prior to main analyses still remain problematic, as there is no universally accepted procedure for background correction, expression-value summarization and normalization. Here we are focusing on the normalization step of Affymetrix expression arrays, whose main purpose is to remove any systematic non-biological array-to-array variation. It is well known that (i) a noisy technical variation exists between arrays [1] due to many factors such as mRNA quantities, scanner settings, instrument operator, etc., and (ii) the choice of normalization method can make a substantial impact to the final results [2].Currently, the quantile normalization [3,4], global normalization [5] and loess normalization [6] are among the most commonly used. However, all these methods rely on sensitive assumptions that may be violated in real applications. To illustrate the impact of normalization step on final results, Table 1 reports the percentages of concordance in the number of genes declared differentially expressed (DE) between different normalization procedure applied to the same expression measure (MAS5). The gene expression measurements were taken f
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