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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 28739 matches for " Jean-Pierre Farine "
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Experimental Study on Diflubenzuron: Degradation in Freshwater and Bioconcentration in Mosquitofish Following Chronic Exposure  [PDF]
Nedjoua Zaidi, Jean-Pierre Farine, Noureddine Soltani
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.42022

Diflubenzuron (DFB, trade name dimilin\"\" 25 WP) is a chitin synthesis inhibitor widely used against forest insect pests in Algeria. Prior to implementation of these products as chemical agents for mosquito control, knowledge on their potential effects on non-target organisms and its behaviour in water are needed. Therefore, the present study was focused on DFB and aimed to use an HPLC procedure developed previously in order to obtain information on its degradation in freshwater and its bioconcentration in adult females of the fish Gambusia affinis (Cyprinodondiformes, Poeciliidae), which is one of the best candidates for biological control programs against mosquitoes. The adult females were exposed to dimilin\"\" (initial concentration 312 ng a.i./ml) for 28 days and residues analysis determined at different exposure times (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days). The concentration of DFB in freshwater decreased with exposure time while the amount of residues detected at the surface of the fish body increased progressively to reach a maximum at day 14 (162.7 ± 14.0 ng/fish) and declined thereafter during the exposure period. In addition, DFB incorporation into body increased with decreasing DFB concentration in water at each exposure time. The following average distribution was noted at the end of experiment (28 days): about 33% of the applied concentration was detected on the surface of fish body and was recovered by simple rinsing, and about 67% was found inside the fish body. A degradation in water and surface of fish occurred starting day 14 during the experimental period. Thus, about 40% of the initial concentration was degraded in freshwater after 28 days. The results are discussed to develop a better understanding of the degradation of dimilin in water and their potential effect on non-target organisms for its application for controlling

Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons Revisited: Mating Status Alters Cuticular Profiles
Claude Everaerts,Jean-Pierre Farine,Matthew Cobb,Jean-Fran?ois Ferveur
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009607
Abstract: Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs), or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA), affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i) to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii) to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii) to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i) reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii) parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii) unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.
Volatile Drosophila Cuticular Pheromones Are Affected by Social but Not Sexual Experience
Jean-Pierre Farine, Jean-Fran?ois Ferveur, Claude Everaerts
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040396
Abstract: Recognition of conspecifics and mates is based on a variety of sensory cues that are specific to the species, sex and social status of each individual. The courtship and mating activity of Drosophila melanogaster flies is thought to depend on the olfactory perception of a male-specific volatile pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), and the gustatory perception of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs), some of which are sexually dimorphic. Using two complementary sampling methods (headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction [SPME] and solvent extraction) coupled with GC-MS analysis, we measured the dispersion of pheromonal CHs in the air and on the substrate around the fly. We also followed the variations in CHs that were induced by social and sexual interactions. We found that all CHs present on the fly body were deposited as a thin layer on the substrate, whereas only a few of these molecules were also detected in the air. Moreover, social experience during early adult development and in mature flies strongly affected male volatile CHs but not cVA, whereas sexual interaction only had a moderate influence on dispersed CHs. Our study suggests that, in addition to their role as contact cues, CHs can influence fly behavior at a distance and that volatile, deposited and body pheromonal CHs participate in a three-step recognition of the chemical identity and social status of insects.
Fatty-Acid Preference Changes during Development in Drosophila melanogaster
Anne-Sophie Fougeron, Jean-Pierre Farine, Justin Flaven-Pouchon, Claude Everaerts, Jean-Fran?ois Ferveur
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026899
Abstract: Fatty-acids (FAs) are required in the diet of many animals throughout their life. However, the mechanisms involved in the perception of and preferences for dietary saturated and unsaturated FAs (SFAs and UFAs, respectively) remain poorly explored, especially in insects. Using the model species Drosophila melanogaster, we measured the responses of wild-type larvae and adults to pure SFAs (14, 16, and 18 carbons) and UFAs (C18 with 1, 2, or 3 double-bonds). Individual and group behavioral tests revealed different preferences in larvae and adults. Larvae preferred UFAs whereas SFAs tended to induce both a strong aversion and a persistent aggregation behavior. Adults generally preferred SFAs, and laid more eggs and had a longer life span when ingesting these substances as compared to UFAs. Our data suggest that insects can discriminate long-chain dietary FAs. The developmental change in preference shown by this species might reflect functional variation in use of FAs or stage-specific nutritional requirements, and may be fundamental for insect use of these major dietary components.
Volatility Forecasting of Market Demand as Aids for Planning Manufacturing Activities  [PDF]
Jean-Pierre Briffaut, Patrick Lallement
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.34045
Abstract: The concepts and techniques designed and used for pricing financial options have been applied to assist in scheduling manufacturing activities. Releasing a manufacturing order is viewed as an investment opportunity whose properties are similar to a call option. Its value can be considered as the derivative of the market demand mirrored in the selling price of the manufactured products and changes over time following an Itô process. Dynamic programming has been used to derive the optimal timing for releasing manufacturing orders. It appears advisable to release a manufacturing when the unit selling price come to a threshold P* given by the relation P* = β/(β–1) C with C = unit cost price. β is a parameter whose value depends on the trend parameter α and the volatility σ of the selling price, the discount rate ρ applicable to the capital appreciation relevant to the business context under consideration. The results have been successfully applied to the evolution of the quarterly construction cost index in France over ten years.
Chaos Appearance during Domain Wall Motion under Electronic Transfer in Nanomagnets  [PDF]
Donfack Gildas Hermann, Jean-Pierre Nguenang
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2013.33022

In this paper, we study the likelihood of chaos appearance during domain wall motion induced by electronic transfer. Considering a time-varying current density theory, we proceed to a numerical investigation of the dynamics. Using the dissipation parameter, amplitude and frequency of current density as control parameters; we show how periodic regime as well as chaotic regime can be exhibited in nanomagnetic systems. Numerical results allow setting up the periodicity and quasi-periodicity of system and chaotic phenomena occurring during magnetization switching process in nanomagnet through electronic transfer.

Traceability in Acceptance Testing  [PDF]
Jean-Pierre Corriveau, Wei Shi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.610A005

Regardless of which (model-centric or code-centric) development process is adopted, industrial software production ultimately and necessarily requires the delivery of an executable implementation. It is generally accepted that the quality of such an implementation is of utmost importance. Yet current verification techniques, including software testing, remain problematic. In this paper, we focus on acceptance testing, that is, on the validation of the actual behavior of the implementation under test against the requirements of stakeholder(s). This task must be as objective and automated as possible. Our first goal is to review existing code-based and model-based tools for testing in light of what such an objective and automated approach to acceptance testing entails. Our contention is that the difficulties we identify originate mainly in a lack of traceability between a testable model of the requirements of the stakeholder(s) and the test cases used to validate these requirements. We then investigate whether such traceability is addressed in other relevant specification-based approaches.

DNA Nano Devices as a Biased Random Walk Process: A Case Study of Isothermal Ratchet?  [PDF]
Jean-Pierre Aimé, Juan Elezgaray
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.65045
Abstract: Computation and amplification processes based on Networks of Chemical Reactions are at the heart of our understanding of the regulation and error correction of life systems. The recent advances in DNA nanotechnology, with the creation of the modular structures origamis and the development of dynamical networks using the toe hold mediated strand displacement, open fertile areas to construct Hierarchical Cascades of Chemical Reactions with an increasing complexity inspired from systems in biology. DNA strands have the great advantage to design autonomous and homogeneous Networks of Chemical Reactions leaving aside companion chemical reactions as it occurs in biological systems. In the present paper, we use the Fokker Planck equation to extract predictions that address a wider class of systems beyond the case of diluted solutions. We introduce the concept of toehold strength and output strength that leads to an exponential square dependence of the toehold strength divided by the output strength on the escape rate and the probability for the output strand to leave the gate. We highlight the influence of the boundary conditions that may have an important consequence in confined environment when modular structures like origamis are employed.
Skeletal involvement in the pathogenesis and outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
Jean-Pierre Pelletier
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3571
Abstract: In RA, increased osteoclastic activity is responsible for the development of focal osteopenia/erosion and systemic osteoporosis. The increased osteoclast activity in RA has been demonstrated to be linked to a dysregulation of pathways including cell-cell interactions, cytokines, and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) system. Recent studies have shown that joint erosion in RA is linked to a decrease in long-term physical function.Under OA conditions, the subchondral bone is the site of numerous dynamic morphological changes. These changes are associated with a number of local abnormal biochemical pathways related to the altered metabolism of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. At the early stages of the disease process, increased bone loss and resorption is observed with subchondral bone associated with local production of catabolic factors including cathepsin K and MMP-13. Moreover, OA osteoblasts present an abnormal phenotype resulting in increased production of growth hormones and catabolic factors. In addition, factors such as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL have been found to be expressed and modulated over time in human OA subchondral bone. Their synthesis varies from being reduced in early OA to being increased in the late stages of the disease. This finding may explain that in the early stages of OA, bone remodeling favors resorption and in the more advanced stages of the disease, bone formation is predominant.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in knee OA patients have shown that the subchondral bone is frequently the site of signal alterations-bone marrow lesions (BML) - indicative of a great variety of morphological changes. BML and cartilage loss have been linked in several studies. Moreover, studies have identified, in OA patients, a number of risk factors for total knee replacement including BMLs.The paradigms regarding the role of bone lesions in arthritic diseases raise a number of important questions. A comprehensive
rich: An R Package to Analyse Species Richness
Jean-Pierre Rossi
Diversity , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/d3010112
Abstract: The paper describes rich, a new R package to perform species richness estimation and comparison. Species richness is the simplest surrogate for the more complex concept of species biodiversity. It is relatively easy to assess although estimations strongly depend on sampling intensity with the consequence that richness estimations should be standardized to perform valid comparisons. The R package rich allows such corrections as well as the computation of various statistics and implements different randomization tests to compare cumulative and average species richness of two communities. These tests are useful for ranking sites or communities which is a classical goal in restoration ecology and conservation biology.
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