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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 43099 matches for " Jean-Paul Kneib "
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Strong and Weak Lensing Constraints on Galaxy Mass Distribution
Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Gravitational Lensing is a UNIQUE tool to constrain the mass distribution of collapsed structures, this is particularly true for galaxies, either on a case by case basis using multiple images of background sources (such as quasars), or statistically using the so called galaxy-galaxy lensing technique. First, I will present the lensing theory, and then discuss the various methods applied to current observations. Finally, I will review the bright future prospects of galaxy lensing that will benefit of the development of high resolution, large, wide and deep (lensing) surveys.
Gravitational Lensing and Cluster of Galaxies
Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Multiple images, giant arcs, Einstein cross, fold, cusp, lip, caustics, critical lines, sources, mapping, time delay, arclets, weak shear, magnification bias, depletion, ellipticities, polarization, smearing, convergence, kernel, mass reconstruction, sub-structure, dark halos, natural telescope, amplification, distant galaxies, faintest sources ... This is a non exhaustive list of favorite terms used when using gravitational lensing in clusters of galaxies. I will introduce here lensing in clusters as a useful tool in modern observational cosmology. I will give a summary of what we are learning in terms of cluster mass distribution in the strong and weak regime, and what information we will gain in terms of the cluster physics. I will underline the benefit of using cluster-lenses as natural telescopes to probe the distant Universe.
Effect of Sub-Structure in Clusters on the Local Weak-Shear Field
Priyamvada Natarajan,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: Weak shear maps of the outer regions of clusters have been successfully used to map the distribution of mass at large radii. The effects of substructure in clusters on such reconstructions of the total mass have not been systematically studied. We propose a new method to study the effect of perturbers (bright cluster galaxies or sub-groups within the cluster) on the weak shear field. We present some analytic results below.
Investigating the Dark Matter Distribution with NGST
Peter Schneider,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: The developments summarized with the name ``weak gravitational lensing'' have led to exciting possibilities to study the (statistical properties of the) dark matter distribution in the Universe. Concentrating on those aspects which require deep wide-field imaging surveys, we describe the basic principles of weak lensing and discuss its future applications in view of NGST (a) to determine the statistical properties of the dark matter halos of individual galaxies, (b) to determine the mass and the mass profile of very low-mass clusters and groups at medium redshift and/or of more massive clusters at very high redshift, and (c) to measure the power spectrum of the matter distribution in the Universe in the non-linear regime, thereby also obtaining a mass-selected sample of halos and providing a means to investigate the scale- and redshift dependence of the bias `factor'.
Lensing by galaxy halos in clusters of galaxies
Priyamvada Natarajan,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/287.4.833
Abstract: Weak shear maps of the outer regions of clusters have been successfully used to map the distribution of mass at large radii from the cluster center. The typical smoothing lengths employed thus far preclude the systematic study of the effects of galactic-scale substructure on the measured weak lensing signal. In this paper, we present two methods to infer the possible existence and extent of dark halos around bright cluster galaxies by quantifying the `local' weak lensing induced by them. The proposed methods are: direct radial averaging of the shear field in the vicinity of bright cluster members and a maximum-likelihood method to extract fiducial parameters characterizing galaxy halos. We demonstrate using simulations that these observed local weak-shear effects on galaxy scales within the cluster can be used to statistically constrain the mean mass-to-light ratio, and fiducial parameters like the halo size, velocity dispersion and hence mass of cluster galaxies. We compare the two methods and investigate their relative drawbacks and merits in the context of feasibility of application to HST cluster data, whereby we find that the prospects are promising for detection on stacking a minimum of 20 WFPC2 deep cluster fields.
Probing the dynamics of cluster-lenses
Priyamvada Natarajan,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/283.3.1031
Abstract: We propose a new approach to study the dynamical implications of mass models of clusters for the velocity structure of galaxies in the core. Strong and weak lensing data are used to construct the total mass profile of the cluster, which is used in conjunction with the optical galaxy data to solve in detail for the nature of galaxy orbits and the velocity anisotropy in the central regions. We also examine other observationally and physically motivated mass models, specifically those obtained from X-ray observations and N-body simulations. The aim of this analysis is to understand qualitatively the structure of the core and test some of the key assumptions of the standard picture of cluster formation regarding relaxation, virialization and equilibrium. This technique is applied to the cluster Abell 2218, where we find evidence for an anisotropic core, which we interpret to indicate the existence of a dynamically disturbed central region. We find that the requirement of physically meaningful solutions for the velocity anisotropy places stringent bounds on the slope of cluster density profiles in the inner regions.
Multi-scale cluster lens mass mapping I. Strong Lensing modelling
Eric Jullo,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14654.x
Abstract: We propose a novel technique to refine the modelling of galaxy clusters mass distribution using gravitational lensing. The idea is to combine the strengths of both "parametric" and "non-parametric" methods to improve the quality of the fit. We develop a multi-scale model that allows sharper contrast in regions of higher density where the number of constraints is generally higher. Our model consists of (i) a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions with physically motivated profiles and (ii) a list of galaxy-scale potentials at the location of the cluster member galaxies. This arrangement of potentials of different sizes allows to reach a high resolution for the model with a minimum number of parameters. We apply our model to the well studied cluster Abell 1689. We estimate the quality of our mass reconstruction with a Bayesian MCMC sampler. For a selected subset of multiple images, we manage to halve the errors between the predicted and observed image positions compared to previous studies. This owes to the flexibility of multi-scale models at intermediate scale between cluster and galaxy scale. The software developed for this paper is part of the public lenstool package which can be found at www.oamp.fr/cosmology/lenstool.
Cluster Lenses
Jean-Paul Kneib,Priyamvada Natarajan
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-011-0047-3
Abstract: Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining to cluster formation and evolution, as well as constraining the nature of dark matter; (ii) the study of the lensed objects - probing the properties of the background lensed galaxy population - which is statistically at higher redshifts and of lower intrinsic luminosity thus enabling the probing of galaxy formation at the earliest times right up to the Dark Ages; and (iii) the study of the geometry of the Universe - as the strength of lensing depends on the ratios of angular diameter distances between the lens, source and observer, lens deflections are sensitive to the value of cosmological parameters and offer a powerful geometric tool to probe Dark Energy. In this review, we present the basics of cluster lensing and provide a current status report of the field.
Color Gradients in Galaxies Out to z~3: Dependence on Galaxy Properties
Niraj Welikala,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Using HST/ACS observations, we measure the color gradients of 3248 galaxies in the GOODS-South field out to z~3 and i_{AB}<25.5 and characterize their dependence on galaxy properties (luminosity, apparent magnitude, galaxy size, redshift and morphological type). The color gradient is measured by the difference of v-i color outside (R_{50}1, galaxies show increasingly bluer cores while the color of the outskirts does not change as rapidly. At z~2.5 and -22.0=2 is concentrated in their central regions. These color gradients and their dependence on galaxy properties could also have a significant impact on shear measurements in upcoming weak lensing cosmological surveys.
Losing Weight: A KECK Spectroscopic Survey of the Massive Cluster of Galaxies RX J1347-1145
Judith G. Cohen,Jean-Paul Kneib
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/340658
Abstract: We present a sample of 47 spectroscopically confirmed members of RX J1347-1145, the most luminous X-ray cluster of galaxies discovered to date. With two exceptions, all the galaxies in this sample have red B-R colors and red spectral indices, with spectra similar to old local ellipticals. Using all 47 cluster members, we derive a mean redshift of 0.4509\pm 0.003, and a velocity dispersion of 910\pm130 km/sec, which corresponds to a virial mass of 4.4 x 10^{14} h^{-1} Solar masses with an harmonic radius of 380 h^{-1} kpc. The derived total dynamical mass is marginally consistent with that deduced from the cluster's X-ray emission based on the analysis of ROSAT/ASCA images (Schindler et al. 1997), but not consistent with the more recent X-ray analyses of Allen (2000), Ettori, Allen & Fabian (2001) and Allen, Schmidt & Fabian (2002). Furthermore, the dynamical mass is significantly smaller than that derived from weak lensing (Fischer & Tyson 1997) and from strong lensing (Sahu et al. 1998). We propose that these various discrepant mass estimates may be understood if RX J1347-1145 is the product of two clusters caught in the act of merging in a direction perpendicular to the line of sight, although there is no evidence from the galaxy redshift distribution supporting this hypothesis. Even with this hypothesis, a significant part of the extremely high X-ray luminosity must still arise from non-virialized, presumably shocked, gas. Finally, we report the serendipitous discovery of a lensed background galaxy at z=4.083 which will put strong constraints on the lensing mass determination once its counter-image is securely identified.
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