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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27071 matches for " Jean-Fran?ois Benoist "
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Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation
Apolline Imbard,Jean-Franois Benoist,Henk J. Blom
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10094352
Abstract: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s) underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects.
An Ethnomethodological Perspective on the Conflict between Magistrates and Journalists in Cameroon  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Nguegan, Thomas Essono
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.34013
Abstract: The report of the magistrate profession to that of a journalist in Cameroon can be studied from the perspective both of the sociology of professions and sociology of the conflict; the actors, who belong to different territories, are usually against the quality, legitimacy and competence required to deal with media information, and judicial control, individual freedom. This relationship is mainly studied in this research in terms of symbolic interactionism, to emphasize first of all on the importance that judges and journalists themselves give to their profession and secondly on the rationality of their game in the construction and the demarcation of their respective territories. This article is a contribution to the study of the discourse of these two groups of professionals who compete with each other.
Precise Mapping of the CD95 Pre-Ligand Assembly Domain
Valérie Edmond, Benoist Ghali, Aubin Penna, Jean-Luc Taupin, Sophie Daburon, Jean-Franois Moreau, Patrick Legembre
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046236
Abstract: Pre-association of CD95 at the plasma membrane is mandatory for efficient death receptor signaling. This homotrimerization occurs through self-association of an extracellular domain called the pre-ligand assembly domain (PLAD). Using novel molecular and cellular tools, we confirmed that CD95-PLAD is necessary to promote CD95 multimerization and plays a pivotal role in the transmission of apoptotic signals. However, while a human CD95 mutant deleted of the previously described PLAD domain (amino acids 1 to 66) fails to interact with its wild-type counterpart and trigger autonomous cell death, deletion of amino acids 1 to 42 does not prevent homo- or hetero (human/mouse)-oligomerization of CD95, and thus does not alter transmission of the apoptotic signal. Overall, these findings indicate that the region between amino acids 43 to 66 corresponds to the minimal motif involved in CD95 homotypic interaction and is necessary to convey an efficient apoptotic signal. Interfering with this PLAD may represent a new therapeutic strategy for altering CD95-induced apoptotic and non-apoptotic signals.
Mouse Studies to Shape Clinical Trials for Mitochondrial Diseases: High Fat Diet in Harlequin Mice
Manuel Schiff, Paule Bénit, Riyad El-Khoury, Dimitri Schlemmer, Jean-Franois Benoist, Pierre Rustin
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028823
Abstract: Background Therapeutic options in human mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases have been poorly evaluated mostly because of the scarcity of cohorts and the inter-individual variability of disease progression. Thus, while a high fat diet (HFD) is often recommended, data regarding efficacy are limited. Our objectives were 1) to determine our ability to evaluate therapeutic options in the Harlequin OXPHOS complex I (CI)-deficient mice, in the context of a mitochondrial disease with human hallmarks and 2) to assess the effects of a HFD. Methods and Findings Before launching long and expensive animal studies, we showed that palmitate afforded long-term death-protection in 3 CI-mutant human fibroblasts cell lines. We next demonstrated that using the Harlequin mouse, it was possible to draw solid conclusions on the efficacy of a 5-month-HFD on neurodegenerative symptoms. Moreover, we could identify a group of highly responsive animals, echoing the high variability of the disease progression in Harlequin mice. Conclusions These results suggest that a reduced number of patients with identical genetic disease should be sufficient to reach firm conclusions as far as the potential existence of responders and non responders is recognized. They also positively prefigure HFD-trials in OXPHOS-deficient patients.
Adipocytes modulate vascular smooth muscle cells migration potential through their secretions  [PDF]
Souhad El Akoum, Isabelle Cloutier, Jean-Franois Tanguay
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.34035

Impairment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is recognized as a predisposition factor for atherosclerosis development. We hypothesize that the metabolic syndrome has a direct impact on VSMC migration and phenotypic switching, which may increase the incidence of atherosclerotic events. Aortic VSMC were extracted from 10 weeks old C57BL6 mice and incubated for 24 hr in adipocytes conditioned cell culture medium. Adipocytes were extracted from diabetic C57BL6 male mice fed with either a vegetal or an animal High-Fat-Diet (HFD) for 20 weeks. Migration of VSMC in response to conditioned media stimulations was significantly modulated compared to control. The most extended effects on VSMC were triggered by adipocytes from mice fed with animal HFD. These effects were concurrent with increased leptin concentrations and decreased adiponectin levels in conditioned media. A significant up-regulation of CD36 mRNA level was found in VSMC treated with adipocytes from HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, we have shown that the development of adipocyte-induced VSMC alterations is linked to diet fatty acid composition and the degree of metabolic alterations. The modulation of adipokine secretions in the adipose tissue that is linked to metabolic alterations may alter the physiology of VSMC and thus accelerate the development of metabolic-related vascular diseases.

Universality in Statistical Measures of Trajectories in Classical Billiard Systems  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Laprise, Ahmad Hosseinizadeh, Helmut Kr?ger
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.68132
Abstract: For classical billiards, we suggest that a matrix of action or length of trajectories in conjunction with statistical measures, level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity, can be used to distinguish chaotic from integrable systems. As examples of 2D chaotic billiards, we considered the Bunimovich stadium billiard and the Sinai billiard. In the level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity, we found GOE behaviour consistent with predictions from random matrix theory. We studied transport properties and computed a diffusion coefficient. For the Sinai billiard, we found normal diffusion, while the stadium billiard showed anomalous diffusion behaviour. As example of a 2D integrable billiard, we considered the rectangular billiard. We found very rigid behaviour with strongly correlated spectra similar to a Dirac comb. These findings present numerical evidence for universality in level spacing fluctuations to hold in classically integrable systems and in classically fully chaotic systems.
Oxytocin and Collective Bargaining: Propositions for a New Research Protocol  [PDF]
Jean-Franois Tremblay, Sébastien Rivard, Eric Gosselin
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.77063
Abstract: This paper contributes to collective bargaining research by providing a causal theoretical biological link path between negotiation behaviors and their substantive and relational results. Specifically, the role of oxytocin is described in light of the scientific knowledge that comes from organizational neurosciences, neuroeconomics and, psychology fields. The properties of the hormone, its place in neuroeconomics research and, their links with the psychology of the collective bargaining processes are discussed to determine guidelines for a new experimental protocol meant to study decision-making processes during collective bargaining. In addition, the conceptual model of strategic negotiations serves as a theoretical framework to consolidate the propositions that can be deduced from the results of the interaction processes in collective bargaining according to two dimensions of the outcome of the negotiations. Finally, the parameters of a new experimental protocol derived from the trust game are presented for the first time. This new game presents a more ecological perspective and is developed to offer a better fit with the specific domain of collective bargaining.
Should Metabolic Diseases Be Systematically Screened in Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorders?
Manuel Schiff,Jean-Franois Benoist,Sofiane A?ssaoui,Odile Boepsflug-Tanguy,Marie-Christine Mouren,Hélène Ogier de Baulny,Richard Delorme
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021932
Abstract: In the investigation of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a genetic cause is found in approximately 10–20%. Among these cases, the prevalence of the rare inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) is unknown and poorly evaluated. An IMD responsible for ASD is usually identified by the associated clinical phenotype such as dysmorphic features, ataxia, microcephaly, epilepsy, and severe intellectual disability (ID). In rare cases, however, ASD may be considered as nonsyndromic at the onset of a related IMD.
L’influence des agents virtuels sur la confiance des internautes vis-à-vis d’un site Web
Jean-Franois Lemoine,Jean-Franois Notebaert
Communications of the IBIMA , 2009,
Abstract: This research studies the influence of a virtual agent on web site trust. Starting from an empirical study concerning 242 subjects, we show that a web site with agent creates more trust than a web site without agent. Likewise, we show that a web site with agent influences more web site patronage intentions than a web site without agent.
Attributable cost of methicillin resistance: an issue that is difficult to evaluate
Jean-Franois Timsit
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc4994
Abstract: In the previous issue of Critical Care, Shorr and coworkers [1] provided new data on the morbidity and cost burden attributable to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated early-onset pneumonia (EOP). Based on the data recorded by 42 US hospitals, those investigators found methicillin resistance to be associated with a significant 4- to 6-day excess in mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital days. It was associated with a nonsignificant increase of about US$8000 in total costs, after controlling for case mix and severity. The authors made particular effort to select monomicrobial pneumonias and to adjust the calculations based on underlying illness, and on the severity and duration of ICU stay before EOP. However, this estimated increase in costs should be regarded with caution because of a number of potential biases associated with this type of analysis.First, the observed incidence of EOP was very low. The overall risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is between 9.7% and 22.8% [2]. EOP represents at least one-third of cases. Consequently, the rate of EOP should be higher than 3.2% [3]. Because Shorr and coworkers found that only 499 episodes were recorded in 42 hospitals over 2 years, this suggests that the incidence was unusually low or that EOP was largely under-reported. This could have introduced bias because unrecognized episodes might be different (probably less severe) than reported ones. Any under-recognition of EOP might have resulted from the known lack of reproducibility of ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition) [4]. Moreover, MRSA VAP has been reported to occur mainly late in the ICU stay [5-8]; MRSA represents fewer than 5% of micro-organisms encountered in EOP episodes [9]. The factors that impact on outcomes of EOP may be different from those in late-onset pneumonia [9,10]. For example, EOP is associated a shorter ICU stay, with significantly fewer days of mechanica
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