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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 73160 matches for " Jean-David Gerber "
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The sustainable management of the landscape
Jean-David Gerber,Raimund Rodewald,Peter Knoepfel
Revue de Géographie Alpine , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/rga.311
Abstract: Le paysage est de plus en plus per u comme une ressource. à ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette ressource-paysage sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle fran ais, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influen ant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource. The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this "resource landscape" in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies) and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.
Gestion durable du paysage
Jean-David Gerber,Raimund Rodewald,Peter Knoepfel
Revue de Géographie Alpine , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/rga.300
Abstract: Le paysage est de plus en plus per u comme une ressource. à ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette ressource-paysage sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle fran ais, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influen ant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource. The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies) and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.
Régimes institutionnels de ressources et théorie de la régulation
Jean-David Gerber,Frédéric Varone,Stéphane Nahrath
Revue de la Régulation : Capitalisme, Institutions, Pouvoirs , 2008,
Abstract: Cet article postule que la combinaison d’une approche en termes de science politique (analyse des politiques publiques) et d’économie institutionnelle des ressources (théorie des droits de propriété) permet l’identification des dimensions régulatrices les plus importantes permettant d’expliquer l’usage (non) durable des ressources naturelles et culturelles. Sur cette base, il développe un cadre d’analyse novateur, celui des régimes institutionnels de ressources (RIR), qui est ensuite confronté au corpus de la théorie fran aise de la régulation (TR, telle que formalisée notamment par M. Aglietta, R. Boyer et A. Lipietz) de manière à identifier, aussi bien les convergences, que les complémentarités entre les RIR et la TR. Nous développons ainsi l’idée que l’une des contributions majeures des RIR à la TR sous l’angle de la durabilité consiste dans sa capacité à décrire les différentes configurations de régimes de ressource et à expliquer, voire prévoir, leurs effets sur la durabilité de la ressource. This article postulates that an approach combining political science (policy analysis) and institutional economics (property rights theory) enables the identification of the most relevant regulatory dimensions that explain the (un)sustainable uses of natural and cultural resources. From this starting point, it develops an innovative theoretical framework, that of the institutional resource regime (IRR). This framework is then compared with the corpus of the French theory of regulation (TR, as formalized by M. Aglietta, R. Boyer and A. Lipietz). We develop the idea that one of the major contributions of the IRR framework to the TR from a sustainability perspective is its ability to describe the different configurations of resource regimes and thus to explain, and even predict, their effects on the sustainability of a resource.
The role of common pool resource institutions in the implementation of Swiss natural resource management policy
Jean-David Gerber,Stéphane Nahrath,Emmanuel Reynard,Luzius Thomi
International Journal of the Commons , 2008,
Abstract: By analysing Swiss common pool resource (CPR) institutions, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on comanagement while demonstrating how important it is to take into account the structuring role played by public policies in the regulation of natural resource use in western countries characterized by significant state intervention. The comparative analysis of three detailed case studies dealing with hunting, flood protection and landscape management policies leads to three main conclusions: (1) CPR institutions strengthen the coherence of resource regimes to the extent that they constitute social institutions which can facilitate the "mediation process," i.e. the transformation of the collective identity, self-perception and, therefore, behaviour of policy target groups in the direction defined by the stated policy objectives; (2) one of the main conditions for the perpetuation of CPR institutions is their capacity to organize their activities around a collective problem defined as such by a policy; (3) the integration of CPR institutions into the political-administrative arrangement contributes to the reinforcement of the functional and territorial coordination between payers, decision makers and beneficiaries in regional and local institutional regimes.
Patentes de invención, nuevas tecnologías y la apropiación privada del conocimiento público Patentes de invención, nuevas tecnologías y la apropiación privada del conocimiento público
Jean-David Gelles
Revista Economía , 2005,
Abstract: In this working paper an examination is made of the logical balance of the deductive argument that commonly appears in various economic texts to justify a system of patents of invention. The examination mentioned should be applied in times of radical technological change in the world to avoid a priori extensions of the legal and institutional protection provided by a system of patents of invention based on past technological realities. The result of the examination shows partial lack of balance when proper account is taken of the financial expenses and coordination efforts by governments as well as of the free distribution of useful knowledge in the fields of biotechnology and the Internet. To refer to that non-legitimate appropriation of public knowledge by the private sector the term ‘epistemo-piracy’ is coined by analogy with ‘bio-piracy’ of common use. The fields of biotechnology and the Internet were chosen because they are preponderant to explain the rise in the number of patents of invention in the world. En este documento de trabajo se plantea un examen de equilibrio lógico del argumento deductivo utilizado de manera corriente en diversos textos económicos para alentar un sistema de patentes de invención. Asimismo se propone que dicho examen de equilibrio se debe aplicar en épocas de cambio radical en la realidad tecnológica mundial para evitar extensiones apriorísticas de la protección legal e institucional que confiere un sistema de patentes de invención basado en realidades tecnológicas pasadas. El resultado del examen planteado arroja desequilibrio parcial cuando se toman en cuenta los gastos de financiamiento y la coordinación gubernamental, así como la distribución gratuita de los conocimientos útiles obtenidos en los campos de la biotecnología e Internet. Para referirse a esa apropiación indebida de conocimientos de dominio público por parte del sector privado se acu a la palabra epistemo-piratería, por analogía con bio-piratería de uso común. Los campos tecnológicos antes mencionados fueron escogidos porque son preponderantes para explicar el incremento en el número de patentes de invención registrados en el nivel global.
Une relecture de l’événement : La chute du Royaume arabe de Damas en 1920 The fall of the “Arab kingdom” of Damascus, in July 1920, took place among a series of thick and fast events, however it is from now on clarified
Jean-David Mizrahi
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.2734
Abstract: La chute du “royaume arabe” de Damas, en juillet 1920, s’inscrit dans une trame événementielle particulièrement serrée, mais dorénavant bien éclairée. L’objet de cet article est de tenter une interprétation de cet événement en privilégiant au contraire les forces profondes à l’ uvre dans la “longue durée”. Dans cette optique, on a d’abord cherché à décoder les mutations de la scène politique syrienne du moment à la lumière des transformations économiques et sociales ayant affecté le Bilad al-Sham au cours d’un long xixe siècle ottoman, avant de se projeter dans l’histoire intellectuelle et des représentations, et de voir comment le modèle civilisateur du Royaume arabe , hérité de l’Europe des Lumières, venait en définitive buter sur un courant radical et populiste du nationalisme arabe. The purpose of this article is to provide an interpretation of that event by grasping, on the contrary, the meaning of the framework at stake “in the long term”. Therefore, we have, first and foremost, sought to understand the transformations of the Syrian political arena in those days in the light of economic and social changes that affected the Bilad al-Sham during a long Ottoman 19th century, before exploring the intellectual history and that of representations, and being aware that the civilizing example of the Arabian kingdom, inherited from the Europe of the Enlightenment, was eventually bound to come up against a radical and populist trend in the Arab nationalism.
On the similarity solutions for a steady MHD equation
Jean-David Hoernel
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the similarity solutions for a steady laminar incompressible boundary layer equations governing the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow near the forward stagnation point of two-dimensional and axisymmetric bodies. This leads to the study of a boundary value problem involving a third order autonomous ordinary differential equation. Our main results are the existence, uniqueness and nonexistence for concave or convex solutions.
An overview of the goodness-of-fit test problem for copulas
Jean-David Fermanian
Quantitative Finance , 2012,
Abstract: We review the main "omnibus procedures" for goodness-of-fit testing for copulas: tests based on the empirical copula process, on probability integral transformations, on Kendall's dependence function, etc, and some corresponding reductions of dimension techniques. The problems of finding asymptotic distribution-free test statistics and the calculation of reliable p-values are discussed. Some particular cases, like convenient tests for time-dependent copulas, for Archimedean or extreme-value copulas, etc, are dealt with. Finally, the practical performances of the proposed approaches are briefly summarized.
From ignorance to denial about an orphan, but no rare, genetic disease: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III)
Claude Hamonet,Jean-David Zeitoun
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v2n4p86
Abstract: The development of medicine is increasingly based on biology and medical imaging keeps the doctor away from the bedside. In addition, both doctors and patients believe less and less in clinical medicine. This is compounded by poor application of evidence-based medicine and leads to give probative value to biological tests and, in particular, genetic tests. One can add the fragmentation of medical practice in specialties and subspecialties which hampers a comprehensive view of the patient. This and some medical prejudices, including a lack of confidence in the patient, explain that a poorly described disease, with multiple manifestations, without biological or radiological test, has very little chance of being recognized. This is the case of a multi painful hemorrhagic hypermobile syndrome with asthenia, called Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) which, despite its relative frequency, continues to be ignored by almost all of the medical profession. This leads to a delay in diagnosis of about 21 years for women and 15 years for men, after the onset of symptoms, and leaves in ignorance people with a genetically transmitted disease. Our approach relies on clinical observation of 612 cases that we have personally received in consultation at the hospital.
A viscosity framework for computing Pogorelov solutions of the Monge-Ampere equation
Jean-David Benamou,Brittany D. Froese
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We consider the Monge-Kantorovich optimal transportation problem between two measures, one of which is a weighted sum of Diracs. This problem is traditionally solved using expensive geometric methods. It can also be reformulated as an elliptic partial differential equation known as the Monge-Ampere equation. However, existing numerical methods for this non-linear PDE require the measures to have finite density. We introduce a new formulation that couples the viscosity and Aleksandrov solution definitions and show that it is equivalent to the original problem. Moreover, we describe a local reformulation of the subgradient measure at the Diracs, which makes use of one-sided directional derivatives. This leads to a consistent, monotone discretisation of the equation. Computational results demonstrate the correctness of this scheme when methods designed for conventional viscosity solutions fail.
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