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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32783 matches for " Jean-Claude Simon "
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Za re, l'espace écartelé
Jean-Claude BRUNEAU,Thierry SIMON
Mappemonde , 1991,
Abstract: Autour d’un fleuve, le très vaste espace za rois résulte de l’intégration, à l’époque coloniale, de noyaux de peuplement excentrés et divergents. La cohésion du système, fondée sur un réseau de circulation complexe et fragile, n’a pas résisté à la crise économique contemporaine. De ce fait, et par-delà les dynamismes largement spontanés observés en milieu rural et urbain, le Za re appara t de nouveau comme un espace écartelé.
The “3 Genomic Numbers” Discovery: How Our Genome Single-Stranded DNA Sequence Is “Self-Designed” as a Numerical Whole  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Perez
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A2004
Abstract:

This article proves the existence of a hyper-precise global numerical meta-architecture unifying, structuring, binding and controlling the billion triplet codons constituting the sequence of single-stranded DNA of the entire human genome. Beyond the evolution and erratic mutations like transposons within the genome, it’s as if the memory of a fossil genome with multiple symmetries persists. This recalls the intermingling of information characterizing the fractal universe of chaos theory. The result leads to a balanced and perfect tuning between the masses of the two strands of the huge DNA molecule that constitute our genome. We show here how codon populations forming the single-stranded DNA sequences can constitute a critical approach to the understanding of junk DNA function. Then, we suggest revisiting certain methods published in our 2009 book “Codex Biogenesis”. In fact, we demonstrate here how the universal genetic code table is a powerful analytical filter to characterize single-stranded DNA sequences constituting chromosomes and genomes. We can then show that any genomic DNA sequence is featured by three numbers, which characterize it and its 64 codon populations with correlations greater than 99%. The number “1” is common to all sequences, expressing the second law of Chargaff. The other 2 numbers are related to each specific DNA sequence case characterizing life species. For example, the entire human genome is characterized by three remarkable numbers 1, 2, and Phi = 1.618 the golden ratio. Associated with each of these three numbers, we can match three axes of symmetry, then “imagine” a kind of hyperspace formed by these codon populations. Then we revisit the value (3-Phi)/2 which is probably universal and common to both the scale of quarks and atomic levels, balancing and tuning the whole human genome codon population. Finally, we demonstrate a new kind of duality between “form and substance” overlapping the whole human genome: we will show that—simultaneously with the duality between genes and junk DNA—there is a second layer of embedded hidden structure overlapping all the DNA of the whole human genome, dividing it into a second type of duality information/redundancy involving golden ratio proportions.

Urban Planning in Africa: Which Alternative for Poor Cities? The Case of Koudougou in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Bolay
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34033
Abstract: The efforts made to plan cities in emerging and developing countries are confronted to multiple issues, especially in small and middle sized cities which can be considered as poor through several criteria: socio-economic level of majority of population; low levels of public investments, weak quality of local administration, and large dependence of external donors. Following several authors, one of the main reason is that philosophy and methods of urban planning applied to these specific contexts are directly reproduced from a Western tradition which doesn’t correspond to the local and national context in terms of needs, priorities and organization of the financial resources. The case of Koudougou, a medium sized city in one of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso, will give the opportunity to understand concretely how these deficiencies are translated in an urban context, and foresee, more globally, alternative models of urban planning better adapted to poor cities, whose number of inhabitants is growing steadily.
Prosperity and Social Inequalities: Montes Claros, How to Plan an Intermediary City in Brazil  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Bolay
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.42013
Abstract: According to international statistics, nearly 50% of the world’s urban population live nowadays in cities of less than 500,000 inhabitants. These small and medium-sized cities play a role of intermediation between rural regions, local economy and more extensed urban networks, with three spheres of influence: micro-regional, national and international. In many of these “intermediate cities”, the main problem to reinforce them in their action is a lack of financial and human resources for managing the city in a comprehensive way, in order to tackle the demographic and spatial extension of these urban settlements, and avoid an increase of social segregation and fragmentation of territory. The example of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, helps us understand how a city of nearly 400,000 inhabitants, at the center of an economically prosperous region, tackles these issues through a current process of urban planning, having to take into account its historical, social and spatial context. Like most Brazilian and Latin American cities, Montes Claros-which acts as a transit hub at the State and national levels-is a rapidly growing intermediary city that has seen continued economic growth over the past two decades. However, this industrial and business growth has not resulted in a more inclusive distribution of the urban population. Considering the resulting growth from rural migration and new urban residents, the urban area of Montes Claros remains fragmented territorially, with neighborhoods more or less well equipped and served by public transport depending on the socio-economic status of their inhabitants. The current process of urban planning raises many issues, among them three crucial elements to improve in order to re-introduce planning as appropriate approach and instruments able to guide the decision makers towards the future of a city and its region: a medium and long-term vision for Montes Claros, its hinterland and the Northern region of Minas Gerais; a biased perception of Montes Claros in which only the dense areas in the city center are taken into account, with suburban areas still disconnected from the rest of the city and poorly integrated; a participatory process of urban planning involving all stakeholder and population, from the diagnostic till the definition of priorities in terms of urban policies, strategies and investments.
The Role of Cultural Promotion As an Integral Component of Leipzig’s Urban Development  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14009
Abstract: After the reunification in 1990, Leipzig—as well as other East German cities—had to face the challenges of the new political-administrative system and an open global economy. Through the systematic implementation of its evolving urban development strategies, the city has developed positively in many areas. After the German reunification, most of Leipzig’s districts lacked cultural leisure services that would have been fit for all age groups and close to their homes. In the early 1990s, the establishment of such urgently needed socio-cultural centers was initiated on the one hand by official authorities and on the other by the citizens themselves. Many newly founded associations and initiatives strove hard to maintain the existing or to develop new cultural activities. In order to implement the latter, they were not only interested in the already established cultural sites, but particularly in former industrial structures or other buildings with a rich historical background. The best project in this effort is the world-famous Spinnerei. These urban environments offered vast opportunities for artists, the independent scene, cultural workers and creative industries alike. A large number of Leipzig’s cultural institutions originated from civic engagement and were then, in times of economic recovery, incorporated into municipal ownership. Nowadays, they are threatened to be re-privatized as the city’s means of cultural funding are gradually reaching their limits. But Leipzig planning officials still think that the promotion of cultural projects in the neighborhoods provides a climate where culture is respectfully seen as a precious opportunity for urban development. Through an extensive and varied offer of cultural activities, otherwise marginalized citizens can be integrated in social life and participate in democratic processes.
The Sustainable Development of Miami: Tackling the Homeless Problem  [PDF]
Vaiva Kalesnikaite, Jean-Claude Garcia- Zamor
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23019
Abstract: The article intends to provide more understanding of strategies intended to tackle homelessness presence in Miami-Date County as well as draw some lessons that could be learnt from experience. It is explanatory in nature and the main method used is extensive literature research as well as the official reports. It discusses the issue of homelessness in the light of sustainable communities; overviews the important strategies for tackling homelessness presence in the literature and practice; discusses the homelessness presence in Miami-Date County and the strategies and main actors that tackle it; discusses the sustainability of these strategies in the light of development of Miami-Dade County; and draws conclusions and suggestions for strategies of tackling homeless presence in Miami-Dade County.
3D Image Acquisition System Based on Shape from Focus Technique
Bastien Billiot,Frédéric Cointault,Ludovic Journaux,Jean-Claude Simon,Pierre Gouton
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130405040
Abstract: This paper describes the design of a 3D image acquisition system dedicated to natural complex scenes composed of randomly distributed objects with spatial discontinuities. In agronomic sciences, the 3D acquisition of natural scene is difficult due to the complex nature of the scenes. Our system is based on the Shape from Focus technique initially used in the microscopic domain. We propose to adapt this technique to the macroscopic domain and we detail the system as well as the image processing used to perform such technique. The Shape from Focus technique is a monocular and passive 3D acquisition method that resolves the occlusion problem affecting the multi-cameras systems. Indeed, this problem occurs frequently in natural complex scenes like agronomic scenes. The depth information is obtained by acting on optical parameters and mainly the depth of field. A focus measure is applied on a 2D image stack previously acquired by the system. When this focus measure is performed, we can create the depth map of the scene.
High-sensitive Optical Pulse-Shape Characterization using a Beating-Contrast-Measurement Technique
Vincent Roncin,Sylvain Fève,Audrey Millaud,Romain Cramer,Yves Jaou?n,Jean-Claude Simon
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology, such as optical time domain multiplexing or optical signal processing is a key point for increasing the communication capacity. The system performances are strongly related to pulse properties. We present an original method dedicated to short pulse-shape characterization with high repetition rate using standard optical telecommunications equipments. Its principle is based on temporal measurement of the contrast produced by the beating of two delayed optical pulses in a high bandwidth photo detector. This technique returns firstly reliable information on the pulse-shape, such as pulse width, shape and pedestal. Simulation and experimental results evaluate the high-sensitivity and the high-resolution of the technique allowing the measurement of pulse extinction ratio up to 20 dB with typical timing resolution of about 100 fs. The compatibility of the technique with high repetition rate pulse measurement offers an efficient tool for short pulse analysis.
SOA - NOLM in Reflective Configuration for Optical Regeneration in High Bit Rate Transmission Systems
Vincent Roncin,Gwena?lle Girault,Mathilde Gay,Laurent Bramerie,Jean-Claude Simon
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of optical signal regeneration properties of a non-linear optical loop mirror using a semiconductor optical amplifier as the active element (SOA-NOLM). While this device has been extensively studied for optical time division demultiplexing (OTDM) and wavelength conversion applications, our proposed approach, based on a reflective configuration, has not yet been investigated, particularly in the light of signal regeneration. The impact on the transfer function shape of different parameters, like SOA position in the interferometer and SOA input optical powers, are numerically studied to appreciate the regenerative capabilities of the device.Regenerative performances in association with a dual stage of SOA to create a 3R regenerator which preserves the data polarity and the wavelength are experimentally assessed. Thanks to this complete regenerative function, a 100.000 km error free transmission has experimentally been achieved at 10 Gb/s in a recirculating loop. The evolution of Bit Error Rate for multiple pass into the regenerator and the polarization insensitivity demonstration to input data are presented.
Time Series Forecasting: Obtaining Long Term Trends with Self-Organizing Maps
Geoffroy Simon,Amaury Lendasse,Marie Cottrell,Jean-Claude Fort,Michel Verleysen
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Kohonen self-organisation maps are a well know classification tool, commonly used in a wide variety of problems, but with limited applications in time series forecasting context. In this paper, we propose a forecasting method specifically designed for multi-dimensional long-term trends prediction, with a double application of the Kohonen algorithm. Practical applications of the method are also presented.
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