Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 119 )

2018 ( 121 )

2017 ( 144 )

2016 ( 122 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23046 matches for " Jean-Claude Chevrolet "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /23046
Display every page Item
Helium oxygen mixtures in the intensive care unit
Jean-Claude Chevrolet
Critical Care , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cc1019
Abstract: Human airways are complex tubes, and airflow in a tube may occur in a laminar, a transitional or a turbulent manner [1]. Reynolds number can approximately predict the nature of flow [2]. Flow characteristics are determined by complex interplays between many different factors, including the branching patterns of trachea and bronchi, the diameter of the conduits, the angles of branching, and the degree of roughness of the walls. The flow characteristics in the airways may also vary depending on the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates [2,3].During quiet breathing in normal humans, a transition from turbulent to laminar flow occurs through the trachea to around the second generation of bronchi. In patients with airways obstruction, however, turbulent flow occurs very frequently, even in low breathing rates and quiet breathing patterns [4]. This leads to increased work of breathing (WOB).In turbulent flows, the pressure necessary to generate a given flow rate is dependent on the density of the inspired gases [4,5]. Helium has a density that is significantly lower than that of air [4]. Therefore, a mixture of helium and oxygen, termed heliox, has a lower density than does a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (air, or airox) [6,7]. Breathing heliox leads to a reduction in resistance to flow within the airways, and consequently to a decrease in the WOB, particularly in disorders that are characterized by increased airways resistance [8]. These beneficial effects have been observed in a few patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and upper airways obstruction [9]. Heliox has not only been used in patients breathing spontaneously, but also in the settings of both invasive mechanical ventilation (ie with tracheal intubation) [10] and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) [11,12]. Nevertheless, the usefulness of heliox in the intensive care unit remains debatable.In upper airways obstruction, heliox appears
Clinical review: Agitation and delirium in the critically ill – significance and management
Jean-Claude Chevrolet, Philippe Jolliet
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc5787
Abstract: Agitation is a psychomotor disturbance characterized by a marked increase in both motor and psychological activities, often accompanied by a loss of control of action and a disorganization of thought. This problem is driven by frequently occurring situations in the intensive care unit (ICU), such as anxiety and delirium. Therefore, it is fairly common in the ICU setting, particularly in older patients, and it may be caused by numerous factors, linked both to the disease itself (metabolic disorders, medications, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, and so on) and to external factors (noise, discomfort, pain, and so on) [1]. Agitation per se may be dangerous in the ICU: its occurrence may compromise care, raise metabolic requirements and, finally, increase morbidity and mortality [2]. Length of stay in the ICU as well as in the hospital may also be increased, in turn leading to an increase in costs. In addition, compared to that of similar but non-delirious patients, the post-hospital mortality rate may be higher in patients having presented with agitation and delirium. For all these reasons, these mental disorders should be a source of serious concern and, therefore, vigorously managed through a systematic approach [3]. It is generally accepted that these symptoms represent a marker of acute cerebral insufficiency.Besides agitation, several mental disturbances may be observed in the ICU, in particular anxiety and delirium. It is not presently known if these mental states express different types of brain dysfunction, or if they represent some sort of spectrum in the severity of the cerebral insult [1]. Anxiety is a diffuse sensation of fear, which is not related to a real and actual external danger. This sensation is expected to occur in the ICU due to the numerous stressful situations occurring in this setting (pain, noise, and loss of body control, among others) [4]. If a certain degree of anxiety seems to be 'normal' in the ICU environment, some authors have described
The “3 Genomic Numbers” Discovery: How Our Genome Single-Stranded DNA Sequence Is “Self-Designed” as a Numerical Whole  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Perez
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A2004

This article proves the existence of a hyper-precise global numerical meta-architecture unifying, structuring, binding and controlling the billion triplet codons constituting the sequence of single-stranded DNA of the entire human genome. Beyond the evolution and erratic mutations like transposons within the genome, it’s as if the memory of a fossil genome with multiple symmetries persists. This recalls the intermingling of information characterizing the fractal universe of chaos theory. The result leads to a balanced and perfect tuning between the masses of the two strands of the huge DNA molecule that constitute our genome. We show here how codon populations forming the single-stranded DNA sequences can constitute a critical approach to the understanding of junk DNA function. Then, we suggest revisiting certain methods published in our 2009 book “Codex Biogenesis”. In fact, we demonstrate here how the universal genetic code table is a powerful analytical filter to characterize single-stranded DNA sequences constituting chromosomes and genomes. We can then show that any genomic DNA sequence is featured by three numbers, which characterize it and its 64 codon populations with correlations greater than 99%. The number “1” is common to all sequences, expressing the second law of Chargaff. The other 2 numbers are related to each specific DNA sequence case characterizing life species. For example, the entire human genome is characterized by three remarkable numbers 1, 2, and Phi = 1.618 the golden ratio. Associated with each of these three numbers, we can match three axes of symmetry, then “imagine” a kind of hyperspace formed by these codon populations. Then we revisit the value (3-Phi)/2 which is probably universal and common to both the scale of quarks and atomic levels, balancing and tuning the whole human genome codon population. Finally, we demonstrate a new kind of duality between “form and substance” overlapping the whole human genome: we will show that—simultaneously with the duality between genes and junk DNA—there is a second layer of embedded hidden structure overlapping all the DNA of the whole human genome, dividing it into a second type of duality information/redundancy involving golden ratio proportions.

Urban Planning in Africa: Which Alternative for Poor Cities? The Case of Koudougou in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Bolay
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34033
Abstract: The efforts made to plan cities in emerging and developing countries are confronted to multiple issues, especially in small and middle sized cities which can be considered as poor through several criteria: socio-economic level of majority of population; low levels of public investments, weak quality of local administration, and large dependence of external donors. Following several authors, one of the main reason is that philosophy and methods of urban planning applied to these specific contexts are directly reproduced from a Western tradition which doesn’t correspond to the local and national context in terms of needs, priorities and organization of the financial resources. The case of Koudougou, a medium sized city in one of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso, will give the opportunity to understand concretely how these deficiencies are translated in an urban context, and foresee, more globally, alternative models of urban planning better adapted to poor cities, whose number of inhabitants is growing steadily.
Prosperity and Social Inequalities: Montes Claros, How to Plan an Intermediary City in Brazil  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Bolay
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.42013
Abstract: According to international statistics, nearly 50% of the world’s urban population live nowadays in cities of less than 500,000 inhabitants. These small and medium-sized cities play a role of intermediation between rural regions, local economy and more extensed urban networks, with three spheres of influence: micro-regional, national and international. In many of these “intermediate cities”, the main problem to reinforce them in their action is a lack of financial and human resources for managing the city in a comprehensive way, in order to tackle the demographic and spatial extension of these urban settlements, and avoid an increase of social segregation and fragmentation of territory. The example of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, helps us understand how a city of nearly 400,000 inhabitants, at the center of an economically prosperous region, tackles these issues through a current process of urban planning, having to take into account its historical, social and spatial context. Like most Brazilian and Latin American cities, Montes Claros-which acts as a transit hub at the State and national levels-is a rapidly growing intermediary city that has seen continued economic growth over the past two decades. However, this industrial and business growth has not resulted in a more inclusive distribution of the urban population. Considering the resulting growth from rural migration and new urban residents, the urban area of Montes Claros remains fragmented territorially, with neighborhoods more or less well equipped and served by public transport depending on the socio-economic status of their inhabitants. The current process of urban planning raises many issues, among them three crucial elements to improve in order to re-introduce planning as appropriate approach and instruments able to guide the decision makers towards the future of a city and its region: a medium and long-term vision for Montes Claros, its hinterland and the Northern region of Minas Gerais; a biased perception of Montes Claros in which only the dense areas in the city center are taken into account, with suburban areas still disconnected from the rest of the city and poorly integrated; a participatory process of urban planning involving all stakeholder and population, from the diagnostic till the definition of priorities in terms of urban policies, strategies and investments.
The Role of Cultural Promotion As an Integral Component of Leipzig’s Urban Development  [PDF]
Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14009
Abstract: After the reunification in 1990, Leipzig—as well as other East German cities—had to face the challenges of the new political-administrative system and an open global economy. Through the systematic implementation of its evolving urban development strategies, the city has developed positively in many areas. After the German reunification, most of Leipzig’s districts lacked cultural leisure services that would have been fit for all age groups and close to their homes. In the early 1990s, the establishment of such urgently needed socio-cultural centers was initiated on the one hand by official authorities and on the other by the citizens themselves. Many newly founded associations and initiatives strove hard to maintain the existing or to develop new cultural activities. In order to implement the latter, they were not only interested in the already established cultural sites, but particularly in former industrial structures or other buildings with a rich historical background. The best project in this effort is the world-famous Spinnerei. These urban environments offered vast opportunities for artists, the independent scene, cultural workers and creative industries alike. A large number of Leipzig’s cultural institutions originated from civic engagement and were then, in times of economic recovery, incorporated into municipal ownership. Nowadays, they are threatened to be re-privatized as the city’s means of cultural funding are gradually reaching their limits. But Leipzig planning officials still think that the promotion of cultural projects in the neighborhoods provides a climate where culture is respectfully seen as a precious opportunity for urban development. Through an extensive and varied offer of cultural activities, otherwise marginalized citizens can be integrated in social life and participate in democratic processes.
The Sustainable Development of Miami: Tackling the Homeless Problem  [PDF]
Vaiva Kalesnikaite, Jean-Claude Garcia- Zamor
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23019
Abstract: The article intends to provide more understanding of strategies intended to tackle homelessness presence in Miami-Date County as well as draw some lessons that could be learnt from experience. It is explanatory in nature and the main method used is extensive literature research as well as the official reports. It discusses the issue of homelessness in the light of sustainable communities; overviews the important strategies for tackling homelessness presence in the literature and practice; discusses the homelessness presence in Miami-Date County and the strategies and main actors that tackle it; discusses the sustainability of these strategies in the light of development of Miami-Dade County; and draws conclusions and suggestions for strategies of tackling homeless presence in Miami-Dade County.
O currículo entre o relativismo e o universalismo
Forquin, Jean-Claude;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302000000400004
Abstract: this article examines the issues of relativism and universalism in the curriculum. according to the author, the relativist approach holds that the validity of what is taught should be questioned. for the universalist approach, there is a common body of knowledge that everyone should learn and that are valuable regardless of particular circumstances and interests. the author discusses the pedagogical implications of the two perspectives and argues that schools and teachers should offer their students the possibility of regarding the multiplicity of voices in the world as analogous to polyphony.
Semiótica del discurso en La tribuna (1882), de Emilia Pardo Bazán
Estudios filológicos , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0071-17132005000100010
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of speech as mediation in la tribuna (1882), by emilia pardo bazán, through the study of illocutionnary speech acts as narrative ingredients which participate de facto in the story and give access to the deep meanings of the novel
Alcohol, Wine and Platelet Function
Biological Research , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602004000200006
Abstract: epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse correlation between moderate wine and alcohol consumption and morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. the protective effect has been associated with an increase in the plasma level of hdl cholesterol, as it is well recognized that plasma hdl is inversely correlated with chd. in addition, it has become evident that blood platelets contribute to the rate of development of atherosclerosis and chd through several mechanisms. in recent studies it has been shown that the level of hdl cholesterol can explain only 50 % of the protective effect of alcoholic beverages; the other 50 % may be partly related to a decrease in platelet activity. this anti-platelet activity of wine is explained by ethanol but also by the polyphenolic components with which red wines are richly endowed. several studies carried out on humans and animals have shown that wine phenolics could exert their effects by reducing prostanoid synthesis from arachidonate. in addition, it has been suggested that wine phenolics could reduce platelet activity mediated by nitric oxide. moreover, wine phenolics increase vitamin e levels while decreasing the oxidation of platelets submitted to oxidative stress. however, a rebound phenomenon of hyperaggregability is observed after an acute alcohol consumption which is not observed with wine consumption. this protection afforded by wine has been duplicated in animals with grape phenolics added to alcohol. the rebound phenomenon may explain ischemic strokes or sudden deaths known to occur after episodes of drunkenness. it appears that wine, and wine phenolics in particular, could have a more significant inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and could explain, in part, the hypothesis that red wine is more protective against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
Page 1 /23046
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.